Objectives • Understand the unit and the final objective • Read and analyze a non-fiction article about the Civil War in El Salvador • Explain the important points of the Civil War in El Salvador • Create a thesis/argument for a mini-presentation about one of the people, organizations or event from the Civil War • Create an outline for the mini-presentation
Antecedent: What was going on in El Salvador before the Civil War? • In the ’70s: • Repression with the purpose of getting rid of the popular resistance • Many revolutionary groups emerged: political-military organizations: • Fuerzas Populares de Liberación • Resistencia Nacional • Partido Revolucionario de Trabajadores Centroamericanos • Etc. • Armed fight begins!
We are going to war… • Military right-wing group enters into power • Dictator: General Abdul Gutiérrez • His goal: annihilate the revolutionary movement • Last attempt for reform failed, the fight continued Left-wing group Right-wing group
Things get worse (1970-1980) • The state (Armed forces): they would use too much force and violence to accomplish their goals • “Escuadrones de la Muerte” (death squads): military army that was extremely violent • During the war, the military army would recruit boys against their will to become soldiers • The boys had to be older than 12 yrs. old • Deaths, massacres, murders, disappearances begin
Leaders against the military dictatorship • The Archbishop of San Salvador, Monsignor Oscar A. Romero was murdered on March 1980 while he was celebrating mass. • The military army killed him which only made things worse revolutionary side was VERY angry
War! • October-- Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional (FMLN) • 5 political-military organizations that were against the Salvadorian regime (government) • Ronald Reagan government enters the conflict • The U.S. helps with armed forces • Many Salvadorians were angry because of the support.
Confrontation • 1981 – “Ofensiva Final” (final offense) launched by FMLN • Armed forces becomes a powerful tool: • High capacity for mobilization (to organize) • Strengthening air firepower • “Tierra arrasada” = “scorched earth” Strategy • Between 1981-1989 the confrontations got worse
1984 Elections • FMLN didn’t participate • The Partido Democrático Cristiano (PDC) party won the presidency with Napoleón Duarte • Considered to be the freest and fairest presidential election since 1931
1986 Earthquake leaves El Salvador devastated (5.4 magnitude) • Damage extended to Honduras and Guatemala • 1,000 – 1,500 people were killed • 10,000 people were injured • 200,000 people were left homeless
Confrontations • 1989-The U.S. begins to reduce its help and involvement • With the fall of the Soviet block the U.S. saw the Salvadorian conflict as irrelevant • International pressure – the search beings for peace in Central America • FMLN launches a massive offense in November 1989 • From 1990-1991, the bloodiest and intense confrontations from the entire war took place
On the road to find peace • 1991- elections IMPORTANT! • FMLN ordered their followers not to disrupt the polling declared a three day truce in the 11-year civil war • Alianza Republicana Nacionalista de El Salvador (ARENA) won the election • 1992 – Peace agreements were signed and reform treaties began • Changes in the constitution • Landownership • Human rights • Remove the legal existence of FMLN • National reconciliation
Consequences • 75,000 deaths and disappearances • People changed their way of being • MILLIONS of weapons were left under the possession of the population started gangs among the youth and adults, which came to be known as maras dedicated to • Violence • Drug trafficking • Have made El Salvador one of the most dangerous and violent countries in the world (even in the absence of war) • Nearly 500,000 Salvadorians were obligated to leave their country. Many have settled in California. • Since the end of the Civil War, ALL of the elections have been closely monitored • BUT great social inequalities continues, growing poverty and the lack of opportunity to live a dignified life for the majority still lack
Articles Read the article to yourself. Share/discuss with your partner what it was about. Identify the main points of the article by filling out the wkst Make sure you answer in COMPLETE SENTENCES.