The United States 1750 - 1919 Involvement in industrialization, the rise of nationalism, imperialism, World War I, and the Treaty of Versailles.
Industrialization in the U.S. • Working conditions were horrendous with long hours for low wages • Literacy rates began to fall due to children going to work in factories to earn money for their families to survive • Items could be massed produced since the development of the assembly line • The increased economic power of the United States helped to bring it up to the status of being a major power. During the Industrial Revolution it was common for children to work in factories.
Industrialization in the U.S. • United States Industrial Revolution was from 1820-1870 • The gap between the poor and the wealthy increased • Laissez-faire capitalism developed • private companies traded with each other with little government intervention • More jobs opened up due to the rise of factories • Development of railroads resulting in quicker transportation and communication • Living conditions went down, because people lived in overcrowded slums • The death toll increased, because people were living in unsanitary conditions where their water source was the same water they did their business in. Industrilization was a period in which items became manufactured by machines.
Nationalism • Experienced a rise of nationalism after the war of 1812 when the British tried to stop the U.S’s trade and expansion • Ended with the Treaty of Ghent, which assured that the British would leave the Canadian borders untouched • Americans celebrated this as a second war of independence. • Mexican American war occurred between 1846 and 1848 • Ended with a peace treaty, The Treaty of Peace Friendship and Settlement • United States had to pay 15.3 million to Mexico and in return received Texas, California, Utah, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado. • Americans supported 1848 Revolutions because they related it to how they broke free of England • The 1848 revolutions impacted the United States because it caused many reform movements such as women’s suffrage and the freedom of slaves • Many revolutionaries that were unhappy with the failed revolutions migrated to the United States
Nationalism This picture depicts a battle in the Mexican-American War. This document is a proclamation of War against the British signed by U.S president James Madison.
Imperialism in the U.S. • According to Washington’s Farewell Address, try to avoid as many permanent alliances as possible. • Manifest Destiny - Expand throughout the continent. • Leads to many conflicts, struggles, and obtaining of land ie. Louisiana Purchase, Mexican-American War. • Annexed Hawaii in 1898, official territory by 1900. • Want to obtain raw materials and markets in Asia and Latin America. • Commodore Perry opens trade with Japan for markets and coal with armed ships, heavy negotiation, and a letter from the President. • Monroe Doctrine enforces exclusive U.S. relations with Latin America. Any attempts made by European powers to colonize would be met with force. • Social Darwinism: U.S. leadership is necessary to “tame the savage.” • Not involved in the Scramble for Africa.
The Spanish-American War (1898) • The war originated in the Cuban struggle for independence from Spain, which began in February 1895. • Destruction of the Maine: • an incident that precedes to the Spanish-American War in which a mysterious explosion sank the U.S. battleship Maine in the harbour of Havana, Cuba. • 260 American seamen died. • Spain’s refusal of American demands led to war. • Teller Amendment: • The U.S. added this amendment asserting that it would not attempt to exercise hegemony over Cuba. • War at Manila Bay (Philippines Island): • Spanish fleet was destroyed by Americans. • War at Cuba: • Marines captured Guantanamo bay • War at San Juan (Puerto Rico): • Dismounted troopers, including the African-American Ninth and Tenth cavalries and the Rough Riders commanded by Lt. Theodore Roosevelt forced the Spanish to surrender.
The Spanish-American War • The Treaty of Paris (Dec. 10, 1898): • est. the independence of Cuba • ceded Puerto Rico from Guam to the United States • allowed the United States to purchase the Philippines Island from Spain for 20 million dollars. • Outcome of the Spanish-American War: • cost the United States 250 million dollars • 3,000 more people from U.S. died and 90% died from infectious disease. John Hay presents Jules Cambon $20M per Treaty of Paris
The Spanish-American War Spanish-American War, water routes. U.S. sailed from Hong Kong to Philippines Island to fight on Manila Bay with the Spanish. Spanish fleet was destroyed by Americans
Involvement in World War I • Conflict amongst American citizens as to which side involved in war was right. • Businesses profited greatly, selling goods to the Entente: • Food • Raw materials • Weaponry • Took over markets in Asia and Latin America with Europe channeling power on war effort. • Loans to the Entente, increase in exports. • Credit to purchase only American goods. • “American transformation” • World’s largest creditor with the strongest economy. The British passenger liner that sank in 1915 at the hands of a German submarine, 128 Americans killed.
Involvement in World War I • Initially neutral. • British propaganda -- “Zimmerman Telegram.” • Growing economic ties to the Entente. • President Woodrow Wilson’s statement--submarine warfare in the Atlantic would force military retaliation. • Under the command of Major General John J. Pershing, the United States entered World War I on April 6th, 1917. • Allied with the Entente (France, Great Britain, Russia), declaring war against Germany. • Helped to make the United States a global power. • “Late comers,” (two million had served by the end of the war). • Immense economic gain--saved Great Britain and Entente from bankruptcy. • Reinforced the blockade on Germany. A slow start led to important role in victory.
The Treaty of Versailles • The Treaty of Versailles - June 28th, 1919 • A dikat (peace without negotiations). • Woodrow Wilson and the U.S Senate opposed, American citizens rallied for ratification. • Signed by all but the United States, Wilson writes up the Fourteen Points. • “Just peace,” end to secret diplomacy, freedom of seas. Reduction of limitations would lessen tensions amongst countries. • Formation of the League of Nations. • Treaty of Berlin signed on August 25th, 1921 -- “United States would enjoy all ‘rights, privileges, indemnities, reparations or advantages’ conferred to it by the Treaty of Versailles”
The Treaty of Versailles The “Big 4" of the Paris Peace Conference: (L to R) Lloyd George of England, Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of France, and Woodrow Wilson of the United States. Wilson addressing Congress -- The Fourteen Point Speech.
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