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The Civil War Begins and The Politics of War

The Civil War Begins and The Politics of War

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The Civil War Begins and The Politics of War

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  1. The Civil War Begins and The Politics of War Chapter 11 Sections 1 and 2

  2. Civil War begins • Main Idea – The secession crisis ultimately resulted in the American Civil War between the North and the South from 1861-1865. • The Civil War’s Greatest Myth

  3. Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter • Fort Sumter • Anaconda Plan

  4. Fort Sumter • Fort Sumter – an island fort in Charleston, South Carolina • South Carolina demanded that the U.S. army surrender the fort • April 12, 1861 – South Carolina fired on Fort Sumter, U.S. forces surrendered • SIG - opening confrontation of the Civil War, led Lincoln to call for 75,000 troops to put down the rebellion and preserve the Union • caused Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee to secede from the Union and join the Confederacy • FT. Sumter

  5. Anaconda Plan • Anaconda Plan – Union strategy for victory in the Civil War • Union navy would blockade southern ports to prevent trade • Union would take control of the Mississippi River, cutting the CSA into 2 parts • Union armies would capture Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia • SIG – most difficult objective due to the leadership of Robert E. Lee - Confederate commander of the Army of Northern Virginia who opposed secession but felt loyalty to his home state of Virginia

  6. Significance • “On to Richmond” – Union efforts to capture Richmond in early in the war were unsuccessful • Union losses at Bull Run, Peninsula Campaign, Seven Days’ Fight, 2nd Bull Run

  7. Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation • The Battle of Antietam • The Emancipation Proclamation

  8. Battle of Antietam • The Battle of Antietam – September 17, 1862 • George B. McClellan (U.S.) vs. Robert E. Lee (C.S.) in Maryland • Bloodiest single day in American History – 23,000 casualties • SIG – Lee’s army retreated to Virginia, Lincoln able to issue the Emancipation Proclamation • Battle of Antietam

  9. The Emancipation Proclamation • The Emancipation Proclamation– issued by Lincoln - January 1, 1863 • Freed slaves located in “rebelling” states (states that had seceded and were still in rebellion against the U.S. government) • Turning Point in the War • SIG • made the end of slavery a Northern war aim/goal • discouraged European powers (like Great Britain and France) from supporting the Confederacy • allowed for the enlistment of African-American soldiers in the Union Army • After the Proclamation

  10. Emancipation Proclamation Project • In groups of 3 • Your group will use its creative talents to design a poster which shows support for Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation. • Individually interpret the Emancipation Proclamation and rewrite in your own words.

  11. Chapter 11 - Sections 3+4 Life During Wartime and The North Takes Charge

  12. Life During Wartime and The North Takes Charge • Main Idea – The Civil War brought about dramatic social and economic changes in American society. Key Northern victories such as Vicksburg and Gettysburg helped the Union wear down the Confederacy. The North’s eventual win in the Civil War preserved the Union.

  13. African Americans Fight for Freedom • Soldiers • Slaves

  14. African American soldiers • African American soldiers – allowed to enlist following the issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation • Represented 10% of entire Union army by the end of the war • Discrimination was common • paid less than white troops • segregated units with white officers • 54th Regiment

  15. African American Slaves • seized opportunity presented by the approach of Union armies to escape from slavery and achieve freedom

  16. Soldiers Suffer on Both Sides • Mainly due to high casualties in battle, poor living conditions, and disease • Camp life – lonely, boring, repetitive • Lack of sanitation, poor quality food, lack of proper medical care • Warfare – brutal battles fought with outdated tactics and advanced weapons led to high casualties • Many soldiers were killed, even more returned home wounded or crippled • Many soldiers often kept wartime diaries and sent letters home to record the harsh realities of civil war soldier life

  17. Women During the Civil War •  Typically managed homes and families with scarce resources • Often faced poverty and hunger (especially in the South) • Assumed new roles in agriculture, nursing and war industries • Clara Barton = served as a nurse, later founded the American Red Cross

  18. Lincolns War Machine • Lincolns War Machine

  19. The North Takes Charge • Gettysburg • Vicksburg

  20. Battle of Gettysburg • Battle of Gettysburg – July 1-3, 1863 (Pennsylvania) • Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia invaded the North • Union victory – Lee’s army forced to retreat to Virginia • 51,000 casualties in 3 days – largest battle of the Civil War • SIG – turning point of the Civil War in the Union’s favor

  21. Battle of Vicksburg • Battle of Vicksburg – July 4th, 1863 • Ulysses S. Grant (Union) captured Vicksburg on the Mississippi River • SIG – Union controlled all of the Mississippi River, which cut the Confederacy in half

  22. The Gettysburg Address • Lincoln attended the dedication of the national cemetery in Gettysburg • Gettysburg Address – Lincoln’s 2 minute speech • Said that the United States was one nation, not a federation of independent states • After Gettysburg Address = “United States is” • Lincoln identified the reasons for fighting the Civil War • To preserve a nation that was dedicated to the proposition that “all men are created equal” • To preserve a nation that was dedicated ruled by a government “of the people, by the people, and for the people.”

  23. The Confederacy Wears Down • Lincoln made U.S. Grant the commander in chief of Union forces in 1864 • Grant decided to take on Lee’s army in Virginia, while William T. Sherman attacked Atlanta • Sherman captured Atlanta in September 1864 • Grant captured Richmond in April 1865 • Both Atlanta and Richmond were destroyed • Appomattox – April 9th, 1865 • Lee surrendered his army to U.S. Grant – urged Southerners to accept defeat and unite as Americans again • SIG – marked the end of the Civil War with a Northern victory and an end to the Confederacy • Surrender

  24. The War’s Impact • Long and costly war concluded with: • Northern victory = preservation of the Union • Southern defeat = end to states’ rights and secession arguments • Emancipation of the slaves • Federal government stronger than individual state governments • Destruction of Southern economy

  25. Chapter 11 – Section 5 The Legacy of the War

  26. Legacy of the War • Main Idea – The Civil War settled long-standing disputes over states’ rights and slavery. • Legacy remains today

  27. The War Changes the Nation • Political • Economical • Social

  28. Political Changes • Federal government viewed as supreme to state governments • Secession no longer an option for states

  29. Economical Changes • Northern • Southern

  30. Northern Economy • Northern and Midwestern states had booming economies • Based on business, manufacturing and industrial growth • Railroads were built in increasing numbers • Transcontinental Railroad (from East to West) was completed by 1869 • Transcontinental Railroad

  31. Southern Economy • Economies of Southern states were devastated • Slavery was abolished, eliminating the #1 labor source in agriculture • Many cities were destroyed – including Richmond and Atlanta • Most railroads and many farms were destroyed • Confederate money was worthless

  32. Social Changes • Many veterans on both sides had permanent disabilities • 13th Amendment – abolished slavery in the United States

  33. War Changes Lives • Ulysses S. Grant • Robert E. Lee • Frederick Douglass • Abraham Lincoln

  34. Ulysses S. Grant • Urged northerners not to be harsh with former Confederates • Elected President of the United States in 1868 and 1872 • President Grant • Advocated rights for freedmen (former slaves)

  35. Robert E. Lee • Urged southerners to reconcile and rejoin the Union • Served as President of Washington College (now Washington and Lee) • Emphasized the importance of education to the nation’s future • Lee

  36. Frederick Douglass • Supported full equality for African-Americans • Encouraged federal government to take action that would protect the rights of freedmen in the South • Advocated for the passage of the 14th and 15th Amendments • Served as ambassador to Haiti

  37. Abraham Lincoln • Assassinated 5 days after Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Court House • Shot by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theatre in Washington DC • Assasination • Never had a chance to implement his plans for Reconstruction