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the coming diet revolution

the coming diet revolution

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the coming diet revolution

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  1. the coming diet revolution Dr Rosemary Stanton OAM nutritionist

  2. the balanced diet nutrition& health environmental sustainability taste‘food literacy’ © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  3. considerations • global warming is occurring • what we eat affects global warming • global warming will inevitably affect what we eat © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  4. environmental changes • farms pushed from good growing areas • family farms disappearing & farms devoted to monoculture are increasing • fertilisers & irrigation needed • pollution of waterways • dryland salinity • increasing use of land for ethanol production • climate change © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  5. greenhouse gases changes in last 200 years • carbon dioxide - up 30% • responsible for 70% of global warming • burning fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) • land clearing www.greenhouse.gov.au/education/factsheets/what.html © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  6. greenhouse gases changes in last 200 years • methane - up 145% • contributes 20% of global warming • increased numbers of cattle • rice cultivation (temperature,  CO2) • escape of natural gas • decomposing waste in landfill www.greenhouse.gov.au/education/factsheets/what.html © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  7. greenhouse gases changes in last 200 years • nitrous oxide - up 15% • burning vegetation • emissions from industry • nitrogenous fertilisers www.greenhouse.gov.au/education/factsheets/what.html © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  8. fuel or food? ethanol-based fuels - a help? • 11 acres  ethanol for 1 car for 1 year • 11 acres  food for 7 people for 1 year • corn used for ethanol in the US in 2004 could have fed 100 million people • 30-70%* more energy is needed to produce ethanol than it contributes source: Professor David Pimental, Cornell University © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  9. factors related to food • fertilisers & pesticides • irrigation & water use • increased consumption of animal products & intensive rearing of animals • harvesting & increased storage of crops • processing & packaging • transport & widespread distribution of food © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  10. food factors • food industry driven by profits • uneven distribution (eg compare price paid to coffee growers with café prices) • environmental costs not factored in to product pricing • environmental costs borne by the community, with disproportionate costs to the poor © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  11. for discussion • overproduction - is it sustainable? • overconsumption of food = waste • packaging is an issue • return to seasonal eating • food ‘miles’ • should we go down the food chain? • should we go organic? © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  12. for discussion • overproduction - is it sustainable? • overconsumption of food = waste • packaging is an issue • return to seasonal eating • food ‘miles’ • should we go down the food chain? • should we go organic? © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  13. food exports Australia exports • 80% of grains/sugar/oilseeds • 75% of seafood • 70% of mutton (+ 38% of lamb) • 65% of beef • 50% of milk production source: dfat.gov.au © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  14. food exports exports important ($24 billion/year) but we have ignored environmental factors, including • water • dryland salinity (land clearing) • use of pesticides, fertilisers • overworked land • reduced mineral content of soils © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  15. fish production CSIRO predicts 35% decline overall (64% in Tasmania) due to changes in • temperature • ocean currents & winds • nutrient supply • rain • ocean acidity • extreme weather Gina Newton, Australian Marine Sciences Association, www.frdc.com.au © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  16. overproduction - action • more relevant in some areas • government help/intervention essential • action most likely to occur with the water crisis on the mainland • GM crops that can tolerate salinity?? • more controls on pesticides • mixed farming to avoid monocultures • more research on soil minerals © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  17. GM foods • will they hinder or help? • ? sales tactics of GM companies • not likely to feed the poor • possibility of destroying eco systems • fail to address causes of climate change • fail to tackle depletion of water & soil nutrients • creating problems for beneficial insects © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  18. for discussion • overproduction - is it sustainable? • overconsumption of food = waste • packaging is an issue • return to seasonal eating • food ‘miles’ • should we go down the food chain? • should we go organic? © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  19. overconsumption excess weight in Australia occurs in • 67% of men • 52% of women • 20-25% of children © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  20. overconsumption obesity increases the risks of • type 2 diabetes • high blood pressure • coronary heart disease • strokes • cancers, especially bowel, breast, endometrium, kidney, oesophagus • gallstones © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  21. overconsumption obesity also • increases the risks of surgery • makes arthritis worse • worsens back and knee problems • is sometimes involved in depression © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  22. overconsumption environmental effects • increased purchases = increased waste • 40-50% landfill waste is food and garden waste (8.4 million tonnes/yr) • each kilogram of food waste in landfill contributes 1kg of greenhouse gases © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  23. overconsumption - action • greater publicity about problems of excess consumption (health & environmental) • increased price for some foods (likely as resources/transport costs increase or via taxation based on energy ‘rating’ of foods) • collection system with emphasis on education + subsidies for composting or worm farms (both domestic & industrial) © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  24. for discussion • overproduction - is it sustainable? • overconsumption of food = waste • packaging is an issue • return to seasonal eating • food ‘miles’ • should we go down the food chain? • should we go organic? © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  25. packaging • Australia produces 3.3 million tonnes of packaging materials/year • ~ 65% packaging for food/beverages • useful because it improves shelf life and reduces food waste • a problem because it uses energy resources to produce and more when it is discarded and adds to landfill © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  26. packaging • throughout the world, 400 billion plastic water bottles added to landfill each year • packaging makes up 72% of litter in Australia (and includes 25 million plastic bags discarded as litter/year) © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  27. packaging • recycling possible & improving • kerbside recycling collects 20% of packaging • problem: 50% food & non-alcoholic beverages consumed away from home © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  28. packaging • industry & retailers should be responsible for waste collection • when Ireland added 26c levy, plastic bag usage fell by 90% • container deposits in SA achieve 85% return rate © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  29. packaging - action • choose foods with less packaging • re-use packaging • recycle (bins more widely available) • push governments to set mandatory rules for container deposits • recycling costs should be included in product price © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  30. for discussion • overproduction - is it sustainable? • overconsumption of food =  waste • packaging is an issue • return to seasonal eating • food ‘miles’ • should we go down the food chain? • should we go organic? © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  31. seasonal eating • seasonal foods link us to production & increase ‘food literacy’ • ignored in favour of ‘choice’ • choice increases consumption - as more ‘variety’ is offered, we consume more © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  32. has choice gone mad? • average Australian supermarket stocks 30,000 foods • do we ‘need’ or even want all this? • do we ‘need’ 1800 snack foods? • do we ‘need’ Californian oranges in summer when Valencias are in season? © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  33. drivers of food choices • the food supply was once driven by what was in season • cultural influences also played a role in the daily diet © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  34. new drivers • convenience • profit • what large retailers want to sell • health & science • advertising & marketing © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  35. functional foods new ‘super’ foods • attempt to ‘rescue’ the diet • some may be useful; others designed for ‘disease shopping’ • highly priced • divert attention from real dietary problems © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  36. functional foods often a techno-fix aiming to produce something as good as fruit & vegetables but we already have fruit & vegetables! © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  37. for discussion • overproduction - is it sustainable? • overconsumption of food =  waste • packaging is an issue • return to seasonal eating • food ‘miles’ • should we go down the food chain? • should we go organic? © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  38. food miles distance food travels from paddock to plate • how far food has travelled • mode of transport (heavy vehicles, air, sea, packaging) • sustainability associated with the food’s production © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  39. food miles consider sustainability • Australian animals graze year round & rarely need winter housing • New Zealand uses less pesticide than most countries, so may be preferable © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  40. food miles water also a vital issue • should Australia import rice and cotton rather than deplete the Murray/Darling river system? • to produce 1 kg coffee requires 20,000L water, so grow it in tropical areas and provide an income for growers © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  41. food miles not always simple • can’t divorce food miles from global considerations • equity issues important (eg coffee growers need fair price) • importing some products may not be sustainable © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  42. food miles - action • check the origin of foods • consider seasonality (education needed for parents, in schools, farmers, retailers, food & recipe writers, journalists) • reject foods out of season • develop school kitchen gardens • promote home/community gardens © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  43. for discussion • overproduction - is it sustainable? • overconsumption of food =  waste • packaging is an issue • return to seasonal eating • food ‘miles’ • should we go down the food chain? • should we go organic? © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  44. go down the food chain? world health authorities recommend we bias our diets towards plant foods and less processed foods for health & sustainability © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  45. go down the food chain? as populations become more affluent, they eat more animal products, more processed foods and fewer plant foods and develop obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancers of the bowel and breast © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  46. effects of the affluent diet more meat, more processed foods • production of animal foods takes large amounts of land and water • processing foods uses more energy & may deliver an imbalance of nutrients • low kilojoule and functional foods can be especially problematic © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  47. effects of the affluent diet more meat, more processed foods • production of animal foods takes large amounts of land and water • processing foods uses more energy & may deliver an imbalance of nutrients • low kilojoule and functional foods can be especially problematic © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  48. litres of water for 1 kg food potatoes 500 wheat 900 maize 1,400 rice 1,910 soy 2,000 chickens 3,500 beef, broad acre* 50,000 beef (lot-fed) 100,000 Source: Pimmental D, Houser J, Preiss E. 1997 Bioscience 47: 97-106 * CSIRO quoted in AFGC Environment Report 2003 © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  49. wise use of land crop gross energy output number fed (MJ)/hectare /hectare cabbage 105,000 23 potatoes 102,000 22 rice 88,000 19 corn 76,000 17 wheat 70,000 15 pork 14,000 3 rabbit 13,000 3 milk 9,000 2 lamb 7,000 2 chicken, corn-fed 7,000 2 beef 5,000 1 source: Spedding CRW 1990 in Lewis b, Assmann G (eds) Social & Economic contexts of coronary prevention, London: Current Medical Literature © Rosemary Stanton 2007

  50. animal production - feedlots • 20-50 kg of feed produces 1 kg meat • 40% of world grain fed to animals • land cleared to grow grain, then grain transported to feedlots • more waste (450kg steer produces 29kg wet waste/day) • more methane - 2.5 x if animals fed a rich diet (CSIRO aiming to change cattle microbes & reduce methane by 16%) © Rosemary Stanton 2007