Download
chapter 8 geography n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 8 Geography PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 8 Geography

Chapter 8 Geography

187 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Chapter 8 Geography

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 8 Geography Alyssa Bisanz, Jenna Whiting, Monica Payne, Sherry Zhao

  2. What is Geography? Geography is more than finding a location on a map. It links people and places together based on location, culture, and customs. The book definition is: the study of places, cities, countries, savannahs, mountains, deserts, rural areas, oceans, continents, and communities.

  3. Types of Geography Physical Geography • The study of the physical features of the earth such as the climate, vegetation, soils, water, and landforms. Human Geography • The study of the economic, social, and cultural systems that have evolved in a specific location. • Examples of human geography include: poverty, language, and religions.

  4. Regional Diversity in the United States • Regional differences become apparent to educators as they move from one area to another to work. • Sometimes local and regional differences are barely noticeable; however, if they are apparent these regional differences cause a number of adjustments in the way that a person lives, interacts with others, and learns or teaches subject matter in the classroom. • A subject matter example would be religion. Religion plays a more influential role in some parts of the U.S. than others. As a result, this type of influence can affect a teacher’s instructional approach to topics like sex education or evolution.

  5. Degree of Diversity by State • The diversity of the population in the United States differs in many regions. Some states have a lot of white people, while others are dominated by other cultures. • African Americans are the majority in the District of Columbia and over 1/4 of the population in Mississippi, Louisiana, Georgia, South Carolina, Maryland, and Alabama. • Asian Americans are the majority in Hawaii. • Latinos comprise 43% of New Mexico and 35% of California and Texas.

  6. South-History and Characteristics • 1 of 4 of the nation's residents lives in the South. • The South started in Virginia and North Carolina but quickly spread to Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, etc when the settlers learned that they could establish plantations for tobacco, indigo, cotton, and rice. • After the Civil War, race became a defining feature of the South, separating the blacks and whites until the civil rights struggle in the 1950's and 1960's. • Now, more African-Americans continue to live in the South more than any other region in the United States. • The Southern culture has evolved from mixing American, Indian, European, and African cultures. This is a process known as Creolization.

  7. Education in the South • Schools were slow to develop and when they did, they were for children of landowners. It was illegal to teach slaves and their children. Slaves still taught themselves and made their own schools before the government provided support for them. • Literacy among African Americans grew dramatically after the Civil War since they were then allowed to learn without having to hide it. • Until 1954, schools in the South were segregated. Many European American families didn't like when the schools were desegregated and many moved to different areas to avoid their children going to school with African Americans.

  8. Appalachia-History and Characteristics • Appalachia is the region of the country that follows the Appalachian Mountain chain crossing the states from New York all the way down into Mississippi. • The people of Appalachia have been stereotyped as mountaineers or hillbillies. The Mountaineer is a rugged and independent individual who has mastered the mountains. The Hillbilly is a caricature of a person from the backcountry. • Appalachia is primarily rural even though it is bordered by large cities such as Atlanta and Cincinnati. • Appalachia's diversity is limited. The population is mostly white with only about 8% African-American and 2% Latino.

  9. Education in Appalachia • Until the 1960's, school attendance in the rural and mountain regions of Appalachia was lower than any other part of the country. It has since improved a lot. • For example, West Virginia has a graduation rate similar to the rest of the country.  • The region also has a history of providing higher education opportunities such as Berea College in Kentucky which serves students with financial need from Appalachia. The students attend the school on a full time basis with full scholarships. In exchange, each student works 10 hours in school-owned shops. Many of these students have gone on to professional and graduate schools.

  10. New England & the Mid-AtlanticRegion • Home to the earliest European settlements and have some of the richest history. • In the past 25 years, the states in this region have lost more of their population than any other states because residents have been moving to the Sun Belt states. • Regions are quite urbanized with lots of industry, but there are states which remain primarily rural Besides English, French is the first language for children in some areas.

  11. VS New England Mid-Atlantic One of the most racially diverse regions: 67% white, 17% African American, 11% Latino, 5% Asian American, and 1% two or more races. Region contains above average graduation rates. Poverty rates range from 9% - 19%. • Little Racial Diversity: 82% white, 7% Latino, 6% African American, 3% Asian American, and 3% American Indian. • Many of the schools used to be religious in nature, but there is a much more secular curriculum in public schools today. • Some of the highest graduation rates in the country. • Poverty rates range from 8% -13%.

  12. New England and Mid-Atlantic Harvard Yale • Some of the country’s most prestigious and oldest colleges and universities are located in this region. • Teacher salaries are also the highest in these regions. Princeton

  13. West Region • Perhaps due to the significant amount of regional diversity, many of the West Region states have strong opposition to immigration reform and policies. • Along with the large number of migrants, the native languages of students are also extremely diverse. • The increasing population of the states in this regions causes somewhat of a strain on the public education system. • Arizona and California have both passed measures banning bilingual education, unless waivers are obtained. CA, AK, HA, WA, and OR are the coastal West. AZ, NM, NV, UT, WY, ID, MT, and CO are the mountain West states. Some of the fastest growing cities are located in this region and many Asian and Hispanic migrants are attracted to live there.

  14. Rural, Urban, and Suburban Areas • Teaching in rural, urban, and suburban areas is significantly affected by a school’s proximity to an abundance of local resources and prospects. • Resource examples include, retail outlets/stores, tourist attractions, sporting events, and cultural museums alter the opportunities teachers have. • Interestingly, 79 percent of the U.S. population lives in towns, cities, and metropolitan areas with 2,500 people or more.

  15. Rural Schools • Benefits: • -Low student to teacher ratio • -Teachers and principal know students and families • -Individual student attention • -Satellite connections allow students to take distance learning courses • -Schools are located in students home communities, • Minimizing student transportation issues to and from school • Limitations: • -Less school resources to offer a variety in class curricula (e.g. foreign languages, music, art, technology education) • -Teachers may be required to teach subjects outside of their expertise • -Low student enrollment • -School consolidation • -Travel time for students to and from school

  16. Urban Schools • Inner-city students need the most support, and often look at schools as a place of refuge from home/family problems. • Many affluent parents and students will attend magnet or charter schools that emphasize particular curricula and more individualized attention. • Typically, there is a disparity between schools located in the city. • There is a disconnect between the more affluent and poverty stricken schools and the resources each school has access to. • Often characterized as centralized, authoritative, and bureaucratic.

  17. Suburban Schools • 1/3 students are eligible for free or reduced-price lunch—compared to over half of urban school students. Often are smaller than urban schools. Contain diverse school populations. Schools face difficulty in offering competitive teacher salaries and employing qualified, licensed teachers. Face many problems that urban schools face. These challenges include drugs, student-on-student harassment, and lack of specialized, individual student attention.

  18. Globalization and Its Origins • Globalization can be traced back to early European colonization in the late 15th century. • By mid-1800’s, European and American colonization moved resources in one direction--back to their respective countries of origin. • Inside today’s world, it is important for people to know communities outside of their home zip code. Therefore, during the 21st century, it is important for students and the general population to understand and be cognizant of other countries’ cultural, political, environmental, and economic systems.

  19. Globalization and Its Origins (cont.) • The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) served as the primary organization concerned with evaluating the status of each country’s self-sufficiency, and economic status. • In 1989, the United Nations Convention on the Human Rights of the Child made early childhood care and education their top priorities. To assess whether a country is progressing and meeting those priorities, various data is collected and evaluated. • 1948, after WWII, colonies were able to assert their independence from European and American colonizers. This independence helped form and establish the World Trade Organization, The International Monetary Fund and World Bank.

  20. Resistance by Indigenous People • The rights of indigenous people have often been violated, and many want to protect their own languages, cultures, traditions, artifacts, religions, and other aspects of life. • Globalization has been a threat to the indigenous groups because often times the newcomers to the land are investors and have more of an interest in making a substantial profit.

  21. Resistance of Indigenous People • In various parts of the world and in the United States, as part of the resistance of the indigenous people, Indigenous People’s Day is being celebrated instead of Columbus Day. • This day is meant to commemorate the history and culture of the native people.

  22. Classroom Focus • Effective classroom teaching methods incorporate the local culture, language, and student narratives. • Sometimes classroom focus can be derived from connections students have with certain places like their home communities, group memberships, school rivalries, and school traditions.

  23. Teaching Immigrant Students The education of immigrant children can be affected by a variety of factors: • Family income • Community • Occupation of parents • Possibly deportation if they are undocumented • Low levels of English comprehension • Lack of ESL or bilingual education in schools

  24. Teaching Immigrant Students • Understanding the background of the students is necessary and teachers should meet with the parents of the students. • Use parts of their native culture to interest them and to help them learn. • Have high expectations for the immigrant students and set goals for them. • If they are likely to move because family members are seasonal agricultural workers, make an effort to learn what their previous educational experiences were like and what they already know. • Do not think of all immigrant students as a homogenous group.

  25. Incorporating Global Perspectives • The connectivity of resources and cultures inside and outside of the classroom affects the way teachers are able to deliver lesson objectives. • Including various perspectives is important because it helps students create relevance to world events, and keep them interested in what is happening across the globe. • Creating relevance also helps students understand the impact that world events have on them, and enhances their understanding of various types of cultures.

  26. Summary • The regions of the United States differ in their history, religion, racial diversity, poverty levels, and many other factors. These attributes help to determine what the education system is like in each region, and how teachers should teach their students. In addition, the migration of citizens, immigration of people into the United states, and location of schools in rural, suburban, and urban areas also cause changes within the education system. In order to create the best learning environment for students, teachers should first understand the background of their region and geography.

  27. Resource Guide • Questions, or looking for more information? The following resources will provide some additional information and research guidance.

  28. What Is Geography Video What is geography. (2009). [Web]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QwbToV-FvsU Video provides an overview of the importance of geography by incorporating a geography definition and several images that show various world locations. These images provide a visual representation of geography. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QwbToV-FvsU

  29. US Culture by Region Advameg Inc. (2011). Countries and their cultures. Retrieved from http://www.everyculture.com/To-Z/United-States-of-America.html The different cultural backgrounds of each individual make up the United States. As mentioned in the slides, regions may vary by races, languages, or income level, but there are so many different factors which define culture. The cuisine, industry, politics, gender roles, and even family ties can add to the culture of each region. Teachers should be aware of the many facets of culture in order to understand their students and to best relate to them. http://www.everyculture.com/To-Z/United-States-of-America.html

  30. Second Language Learners by Stephen Cary Cary, Stephen. (1997). Second language learners. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. • Many immigrant students are ELLs, and this particular book has many different techniques which are helpful in creating the best educational environment for the students. In addition, not only are there methods which the teacher can employ, but also methods which students should employ in order to learn efficiently. Though the targets of these techniques are the ELL and immigrant students, they can be used for all students.

  31. Success of Immigrant Students Walqui, Aida. (2000, June). Strategies for success: engaging immigrant students in secondary schools. Retrieved from http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/0003strategies.html • There is a high dropout rate among second language learners, which are often immigrant students, which suggests that many are being taught inadequately. When teaching ELLs and immigrant students, teachers often focus on the English part and not the context and content. The website lists 10 different principles that teachers should follow in order to further the success of their immigrant students. http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/0003strategies.html

  32. English-Only Laws in the Western Region Crawford, James. (2000). English-only vs. english-only. Retrieved from http://www.languagepolicy.net/archives/203-227.htm • Following in California’s footsteps, Arizona passed the Prop 203. The proposition bans most cases of bilingual education, preventing the effective instruction of many immigrant and ELL students. People have to realize that ELLs are not just the immigrant children, but also American citizens whose native language was not English. These laws are denying many children a fair education. http://www.languagepolicy.net/archives/203-227.htm

  33. Teach for America • Molaro, M. (Producer). (2007). Teach for america founder & ceo wendy kopp interview . [Web]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QwbToV-FvsU • Children are often born into educational inequity. The quality of education is often reflected by the income levels of a community, and children are often unable to reach their potential in these schools. Teach for America trains and sends out teachers to various urban and rural regions in our nation in order to create more educational equity. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hYh9AnwHsZc

  34. Clip from “Lean on Me” • Avildson , J (Director). (1989). Lean on Me [Web]. Available from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FWW4KogocfQ • In the movie “Lean On Me”, Morgan Freeman gives an inspirational speech to students at an inner city school filled with urban youth who lack the motivation to succeed. There is a shortage of support from teachers, district heads, and the city itself, as the school is threatened to be closed due to low test scores. The scores of a test will determine if they can say goodbye to their school, and for many, goodbye to any possibility of an education. Though in the form of a movie, the depressing situations featured in the film are similar to the experiences that some urban students may have to face. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FWW4KogocfQ

  35. Freedom Writers • LaGravenese, R (Director). (2007). Freedom Writers[Web]. Available from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m0PRB4YsXn4&feature=related • "Freedom Writers” is based on the true story of Erin Gruwell (played by Hilary Swank) and a racially diverse group of students. This film illustrates the difference that a good teacher can make in the lives of students in an urban school. Teaching methods may be a bit unorthodox, but if they work for the students, then that’s what’s important. Teachers can use their influence to help the students in urban areas to realize their potential. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m0PRB4YsXn4&feature=related

  36. Experiences of an Inner-City School Teacher • Geib, R. (n.d.). Inner-city school teacher. Retrieved from http://www.rjgeib.com/biography/inner-city-blues/innerblu.html • This is an autobiography of an Inner-city school teacher in Los Angeles, CA. The teacher explains what it’s really like to teach at an impoverished urban school, and describes the time there as some of the most difficult. Of course there are instances when the teachers are able to make a huge difference for their students, but people need to realize that much of the time, the teachers are unable to change the education and social system of the their school.

  37. Photograph Sources • The sources of all images used in the PowerPoint are included within the notes sections of each slide.

  38. Powerpoint Works Cited • All information from this powerpoint came from the Gollinck and Chinn text, Chapter 8: Geography, Multicultural Education in Plurastic Society. Pages 287-336. • Gollnick, D, & Chinn, P. (2009). Multicultural education in a pluralistic society. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

  39. Resource Guide Works Cited • Advameg Inc. (2011). Countries and their cultures. Retrieved from http://www.everyculture.com/To-Z/United-States-of-America.html • Avildson , J (Director). (1989). Lean on Me [Web]. Available from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FWW4KogocfQ • Cary, Stephen. (1997). Second language learners. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. • Crawford, James. (2000). English-only vs. english-only. Retrieved from http://www.languagepolicy.net/archives/203-227.htm • Geib, R. (n.d.). Inner-city school teacher. Retrieved from http://www.rjgeib.com/biography/inner-city-blues/innerblu.html • LaGravenese, R (Director). (2007). Freedom Writers[Web]. Available from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m0PRB4YsXn4&feature=related • Molaro, M. (Producer). (2007). Teach for america founder & ceo wendy kopp interview . [Web]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QwbToV-FvsU • Walqui, Aida. (2000, June). Strategies for success: engaging immigrant students in secondary schools. Retrieved from http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/0003strategies.html • What is geography. (2009). [Web]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QwbToV-FvsU