PE 902 1st Semester Review
Principles of Fitness • Physical Activity • Any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy. • Aerobic Activity • dependent on the presence of oxygen, i.e.: running a long distance. • Anaerobic Activity • Occurring in the absence of oxygen, i.e.: Sprinting, lifting weights 1 rep. • FITT Principle • The amount of overload needed to maintain or improve a particular level of fitness for a particular fitness component, determined through the four dimensions: Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type.
Components of Physical Fitness • Cardiorespiratory • The ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity. • Muscular Strength • The amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort. • Muscular Endurance • The ability of the muscle or group of muscles to remain contracted or to contract repeatedly for long periods of time. • Flexibility • The range of motion in a joint or group of joints.
Components of Physical Fitness Cont. • Body Composition • The proportion of fat and fat-free mass in the body. • Skill-related Fitness • Physical capacities that contribute to performance in a sport or activity: • Speed • Power • Agility • Balance • Coordination • Reaction and movement time
Body Composition • Essential Fat • The fat in the body necessary for normal body functioning. 3-5% in men; 8-12% in women. • Nonessential Fat • Extra fat or fat reserves stored in the body. • Adipose Tissue • Connective tissue in which fat is stored. Your body has the same number of fat cells in the body all of the time and excess calories are stored in the fat cells of adipose tissue. • Overweight • Characterized by a body weight above a recommended range for good health; ranges are set through large-scale population surveys.
Body Composition • Obese • Severely overweight, characterized by an excessive accumulation of body fat; overfat. Obesity may also be defined in terms of some measure of total body weight. • Body Types • Ectomorph – skinny arms, legs, thin waist, low muscle mass. • Mesomorph – naturally muscular, athletic build, powerful and explosive. • Ecto-mesomorph – broad shoulders, narrow waist “V” shape. “Swimmer – like” • Endomorph – round and typically short, have the most difficulty losing weight. • BMI • A measure of relative body weight correlating highly with more direct measures of body fat, calculated by dividing total body weight (in kilograms) by the square of body height (in meters).
Nutrition • Nutrition • The science of food and how the body uses it in health and disease. • Calorie • (Also known as a kilocalorie) Is the measure of energy content in food; 1 calorie respresents the amount of heat (energy) needed to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water 1 degree Celsius. • Cholesterol • A waxy substance found in the blood and cells needed for cell membranes, vitamin D, and hormone synthesis. There are 2 types of Cholesterol: • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) – Blood fat that transports cholesterol to organs and tissues; excess amounts result in the accumulation of fatty deposits on artery walls. Saturated and trans fat raises the levels of this type of cholesterol. The “bad” cholesterol. • High –density lipoprotein (HDL) – Blood fat that helps transport cholesterol out of the arteries, thereby protecting against heart disease. Monounsaturated fatty acids, such as those found in olive and canola oils may increase levels of this type of cholesterol. The “good” cholesterol.
Nutrition: 6 Essential Nutrients • Proteins • Form important parts of muscles, bone, blood, enzymes, some hormones and cell membranes; repair tissue; regulate water and acid-base balance; help in growth; supply energy. • Carbohydrates • Supply energy to cells in brain, nervous system, and blood, supply energy to muscles during exercise. • Complex carbohydrates – are nutritionally dense and contain fiber and are a rich source of vitamins and minerals. Ex: fruits, vegetables, wholegrain cereal and breads. • Simple carbohydrates – are foods such as candy and soft drinks that contain empty calories and have little nutritional value. • Fats • Supply energy; insulate, support, and cushion organs; provide medium for absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. • Saturated Fats – have a single bond between carbon atoms and are saturated with hydrogen. They are solid at room temperature and come primarily from animal sources such as red meat, dairy products and eggs. • Unsaturated Fats – are liquid at room temperature and consist of two basic types.
6 Essential Nutrients Cont. • Vitamins • Promote (initiate or speed up) specific chemical reactions within cells. Abundant in fruits, vegetables, and grains also found in meat and dairy products. Needed for growth and repair of body cells. • Minerals • Help regulate body functions; aid in growth and maintenance of body tissues; act as catalyst for the release of energy. Found in most food groups and are necessary for good health. One function is to regulate cellular metabolism. • Water • Makes up 50-70% of body weight; provides a medium for chemical reactions; transports chemicals; regulates temperature and removes waste products.
Weight Management • Metabolism • is the sum of all the vital processes by which food energy and nutrients are made available to and used by the body. • Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) • is the energy required to maintain vital body functions, including respiration, heart rate, body temperature, and blood pressure, while body is at rest. • Leptin • a hormone that is thought to be linked to obesity. It is secreted by the body’s fat cells, leptin is carried to the brain, where it appears to let the brain know how big or small the body’s fat stores are. With that information, the brain can regulate appetite and metabolic rate.
Eating Disorders • Anorexia Nervosa • an eating disorder characterized by a refusal to maintain body weight at a minimally healthy level and an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat; self starvation. • Bulimia Nervosa • An eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating and then purging to prevent weight gain. • Purging – The use of vomiting, laxatives, excessive exercise, restrictive dieting, enemas, diuretics or diet pills to compensate for food that has been eaten and that the person feels will produce weight gain.