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SPACE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

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  1. SPACE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

  2. OVERVIEW • OBJECTIVES • BASIC PRINCIPLES • MILITARY SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS • COMMERCIAL SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS • WARFIGHTER APPLICATIONS • THE WAY AHEAD

  3. OBJECTIVES • UNDERSTAND BASIC CONCEPTS, PRINCIPLES AND ADVANTAGES OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS • UNDERSTAND SYSTEM CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS FOR DOD, CIVIL, AND COMMERCIAL SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS • UNDERSTAND POTENTIAL SUPPORT APPLICATIONS FOR MILITARY OPERATIONS

  4. OVERVIEW • OBJECTIVES • BASIC PRINCIPLES • MILITARY SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS • COMMERCIAL SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS • WARFIGHTER APPLICATIONS • THE WAY AHEAD

  5. BASIC COMMUNICATION SYSTEM SPACE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

  6. COMMUNICATION SYSTEM APPLICATIONS • COMPONENTS • USER/TRANSMITTER SEGMENT • TRANSMISSION MEDIUM • USER/RECEIVER SEGMENT • RELAY OR TRANSMISSION OF INFORMATION • TEXT • VOICE • VIDEO • DATA

  7. BASIC COMMUNICATION SYSTEM SPACE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM POINT B POINT A

  8. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMLINKS SIMPLEX (one way only) POINT B POINT A HALF DUPLEX (one way or the other) POINT B POINT A FULL DUPLEX (both ways simultaneously) POINT A POINT B

  9. GEO-SYNCHRONOUS • MOST COMMON ORBIT: LOW INCLINATION • ALTITUDE: APPROXIMATELY 23,0000 NM • LIFE SPAN: MEASURED IN YEARS • MAJOR EFFECT ON LIFE SPAN: CONSUMABLES AND SYSTEM DEGRADATION • PERIOD: USUALLY 24 HOURS

  10. GEO-SYNCHRONOUS ORBIT THREE SATELLITES IN NEAR-EQUATORIAL ORBITS CAN PROVIDE CONTINUOUS GLOBAL COVERAGE... ...EXCEPT FOR THE POLES GEO-SYNCHRONOUS SATCOM

  11. HIGHLY INCLINED, ELLIPTICAL • MOST COMMON ORBIT: NEAR POLAR • ALTITUDE: 200 TO 10000 NM • LIFE SPAN: 1 YEAR OR LONGER • MAJOR EFFECT OF LIFE SPAN: CONSUMABLES • PERIOD: 90 MIN TO 11 HRS

  12. HIGHLY INCLINED, ELLIPTICAL ORBIT HIGHLY INCLINED, ELLIPTICAL ORBITS COVER THE POLES, BUT... ...DO NOT PROVIDE CONTINUOUS GLOBAL COVERAGE HIGHLY ELLIPTICAL ORBITS

  13. NEAR-EARTH • MOST COMMON ORBIT: NEAR POLAR • ALTITUDE: 100 - 200 NM • LIFETIME: LESS THAN 1 YEAR • MAJOR EFFECT ON LIFESPAN: ATMOSPHERIC DRAG • PERIOD: 90 MIN

  14. NEAR-EARTH ORBIT NEAR-EARTH SATCOM SYSTEMS USE MANY SMALL, CHEAP SATELLITES TO PROVIDE WIDE AREA COVERAGE NEAR-EARTH ORBITS

  15. SATCOM VS TERRESTRIAL COMMGENERAL ADVANTAGES • LINE OF SIGHT NOT REQUIRED BETWEEN USERS • COMMUNICATION COST & QUALITY LESS SENSITIVE TO DISTANCE AND TERRAIN EFFECTS • MOBILE COMM LINKS BEYOND LINE OF SIGHT • DIRECT COMMUNICATIONS TO REMOTE AREAS, NO NEED FOR INTERMEDIATE GROUND RELAYS • WIDE AREA OR FOCUSED BROADCAST OPTIONS • LARGE CAPACITY FOR MESSAGE TRAFFIC • MINIMUM RESTRAINT ON USERS

  16. COMSAT ADVANTAGES TERRESTRIAL COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS

  17. SATCOM VS TERRESTRIAL COMMMILITARY RELATED ADVANTAGES • SMALLER TERMINALS THAN WHOLE TERRESTRIAL SYSTEM • LOW PROBABILITY OF INTERCEPT OR DETECTION • HIGHER DEGREE OF RELIABILITY AND SURVIVABILITY • REDUCED LOGISTICAL BURDENS • REDUCED SITING PROBLEMS • RAPID NETWORK DEPLOYMENT, RECONFIGURATION • EASILY EXPANDED • FLEXIBLE CONNECTIVITY • COLLOCATED WITH UNIT FOR DEFENSE

  18. SATCOM VS TERRESTRIAL COMMLIMITATIONS • HIGH COST FOR SATELLITES, SPACELIFT, TERMINALS, AND COMMAND & CONTROL RESOURCES • FREQUENCY SPECTRUM • ORBITAL POSITION AVAILABILITY • VULNERABILITY TO ASAT WEAPONS & JAMMING

  19. OVERVIEW • OBJECTIVES • BASIC PRINCIPLES • MILITARY SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS • COMMERCIAL SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS • WARFIGHTER APPLICATIONS • THE WAY AHEAD

  20. PROVIDE TIMELY ACCESS TO INFORMATION AND DISSEMINATION OF DECISIONS TO GLOBALLY DEPLOYED MILITARY FORCES DSCS UFO MILSTAR FLTSATCOM AFSATCOM

  21. MILSATCOM REQUIREMENTS SECURE, SURVIVABLE COMMAND AND CONTROL FOR HIGH PRIORITY USERS HARD-CORE HIGH CAPACITY, SURVIVABLE COMMUNICATIONS FOR DOD SOFTCORE LOWER PRIORITY COMMUNICATIONS WITH MINIMUM SURVIVABILITY REQUIREMENTS GENERALPURPOSE

  22. GENERAL PURPOSECOMMUNICATIONS • USERS • MOBILE TERMINALS • TACTICAL BROADCAST • SATCOM SYSTEMS • FLEET SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS • UHF F/O • COMMERCIAL

  23. MILSATCOM REQUIREMENTS SECURE, SURVIVABLE COMMAND AND CONTROL FOR HIGH PRIORITY USERS HARD-CORE HIGH CAPACITY, SURVIVABLE COMMUNICATIONS FOR DOD SOFTCORE LOW PRIORITY COMMUNICATIONS WITH MINIMUM SURVIVABILITY REQUIREMENTS GENERALPURPOSE

  24. SOFTCORECOMMUNICATIONS • USERS • AUTODIN/AUTOSEVOCOM • DEFENSE DATA NETWORK (DDN) • DEFENSE SWITCHED NETWORK (DSN) • DIPLOMATIC TELECOMM SERVICE (DTS) • GROUND MOBILE FORCES (GMF) • SATCOM SYSTEMS • DEFENSE SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM (DSCS)

  25. MILSATCOM REQUIREMENTS SECURE, SURVIVABLE COMMAND AND CONTROL FOR HIGH PRIORITY USERS HARD-CORE HIGH CAPACITY, SURVIVABLE COMMUNICATIONS FOR DOD SOFTCORE LOW PRIORITY COMMUNICATIONS WITH MINIMUM SURVIVABILITY REQUIREMENTS GENERALPURPOSE

  26. HARD-CORE COMMUNICATIONS • USERS • NATIONAL COMMAND AUTHORITY/CINC NETWORKS • EMERGENCY ACTIONS MESSAGE DISSEMINATION TO STRATEGIC FORCES • TAKE CHARGE AND MOVE OUT (TACAMO) • AIRBORNE WARNING AND CONTROL SYSTEM (AWACS) • SATCOM SYSTEMS • MILSTAR • AF SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM (AFSATCOM)

  27. UHF SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS • ADVANTAGES • GREATER CHANNEL CAPACITY • SMALL, ECONOMICAL, HIGHLY MOBILE • MATURE TECHNOLOGY ==> RELIABLE • EXCELLENT QUALITY • 300-3000 MHz • DISADVANTAGES • VULNERABLE TO NUCLEAR BLACKOUT • SUSCEPTIBLE TO JAMMING AND INTERCEPT • CROWED SPECTRUM

  28. UHF SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS • LARGE AREA COVERAGE • MOBILE TERMINALS • MINIMAL PROTECTION • LDR, SOME MDR

  29. FLEET SATELLITE MISSION GLOBAL, UNPROTECTED TACTICAL COMMUNICATIONS FOR NAVAL AIRCRAFT, SURFACE SHIPS, SUBMARINES AND SHORE STATIONS

  30. FLEET SATELLITE

  31. FLEET SATELLITE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION • CAPABILITIES • 23 CHANNELS (FLEET BROADCAST, FLEET RELAY AIR FORCE NARROWBAND AND DOD WIDEBAND) • TERMINALS ARE MANPACKS, AIRBORNE, SHIP/SHORE AND SIOP MISSION TERMINALS • EHF TEST PACKAGE ON LAST TWO FLIGHTS • NO POLAR COVERAGE • CONSTELLATION SPECIFICS • 4 OPERATIONAL SATELLITES • 5 YEAR DESIGNED LIFE • LAUNCHED 1978 TO 1989 • 1 SATELLITE PER SECTOR

  32. FLEET SATELLITE

  33. UHF F/O MISSION GLOBAL, UNPROTECTED TACTICAL COMMUNICATIONS FOR NAVAL AIRCRAFT, SURFACE SHIPS, SUBMARINES AND SHORE STATIONS • REPLACES FLTSAT/LEASED SATELLITE CONSTELLATION • GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS FOR NAVAL FORCES • EAM AND SIOP DISSEMINATION (AFSATCOM) • PRESIDENTIAL COMMAND NETWORK

  34. UHF FOLLOW-ON SATELLITE

  35. UHF F/O SYSTEM DESCRIPTION • CAPABILITIES • 39 CHANNELS (SOME POSSESS ANTI-JAM CAPABILITY) • TERMINALS ARE MANPACKS, AIRBORNE, SHIP/SHORE AND SIOP MISSION TERMINALS • EHF TEST PACKAGE ON FLIGHTS 4-10 • NO POLAR COVERAGE • CONSTELLATION SPECIFICS • 6 SATELLITES ( 1 ACTIVE, 1 TACO) • 14 YEAR DESIGNED LIFE • COMPLETE DEPLOYMENT BY 1998 (10 SATELLITES) • PAYLOAD CONFIGURATION BY NAVAL SPACE COMMAND • SATELLITE CONTROL BY AF SPACE COMMAND

  36. UHF FOLLOW-ON SATELLITE

  37. FLTSAT & UHF F/O USERS UHF CH 23 DOD WIDEBAND USERS • EAM DISSEMINATION UHF CH 1-10 UHF CH 11-22 AFSCN USN LAND, SEA, AIR FORCES • TT&C • DATA DISTRIBUTION • I&W • FLEET BROADCAST • TACTICAL INTEL • OTHER WARFARE USES USAF NARROWBAND • NUCLEAR FORCE COMMAND • & CONTROL

  38. SHF SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS • ADVANTAGES • GREATER CHANNEL CAPACITY • WIDESPREAD CONNECTVITY • ROUTING DIVERSITY • LESS VULNERABLE TO NUCLEAR BLACKOUT AND SCINTILLATION • DISADVANTAGES • LIMITED FREQUENCY ALLOCATION • LIMITED ANTI-JAMMING CAPABILITY • GROUND EQUIPMENT IS LARGE AND COSTLY

  39. SHF SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS • REGIONAL COVERAGE • TRANSPORTABLE/FIXED TERMINALS • LIMITED AJ PROTECTION • MDR, SOME HDR

  40. DSCS MISSION • SECURE, SURVIVABLE COMMUNICATIONS FOR THE GLOBAL C2 SYSTEM (GCCS); MANAGED BY THE DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY (DISA) • ADDITIONAL AFSATCOM SUPPORT VIA THE DSCS III SINGLE CHANNEL TRANSPONDER (SCT)

  41. DSCS SATELLITES DSCS III DSCS II

  42. DSCS II SYSTEM DESCRIPTION • SYSTEM CAPABILITIES • TWO EARTH COVERAGE, TWO NARROW BEAM ANTENNAS • 1200 SIMULTANEOUS TELEPHONE USERS • LIMITED MOBILITY • NO POLAR COVERAGE • CONSTELLATION SPECIFICS • 3 ACTIVE SATELLITES • 10 YEAR DESIGN LIFE • LAUNCHED 1971-1982

  43. DSCS II SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

  44. DSCS III SYSTEM DESCRIPTION • CAPABILITIES • EARTH COVERAGE, SPOT, MULTIBEAM ANTENNAS • 10,000 SIMULTANEOUS TELEPHONE USERS • CONSTELLATION SPECIFICS • 6 OPERATIONAL SATELLITES--3 RESERVES IN GEO-STATIONARY ORBIT • 10 YEAR DESIGN LIFE • LAUNCHED 1982 TO PRESENT 5 DSCS OPERATIONS CENTERS WORLDWIDE, OPERATED BY USARSPACE • SATELLITE HEALTH SUPPORTS BY AFSPC

  45. DSCS III SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

  46. DSCS EMPLOYMENT APPLICATIONS • NUCLEAR SURVIVABILITY • ROBUST COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEM • ANTIJAM AT HIGH DATA RATES • SIOP AND CINC EAM/FDM MSGS

  47. DSCS EMPLOYMENT APPLICATIONS GCCS EARLY WARNING PAYLOAD CONTROL TT&C NAOC GROUND MOBILE FORCES ARMY SPACE COMMAND AF SPACE COMMAND

  48. EHF SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS • ADVANTAGES • EXTENSIVE BANDWIDTHS • JAM RESISTANT • NON-CROWDED SPECTRUM • SMALL EQUIPMENT, SATELLITE APPLICATIONS • LEAST VULNERABLE TO NUCLEAR BLACKOUT • DISADVANTAGES • TECHNOLOGY RISK -- BRAND NEW • SUSCEPTIBLE TO RAIN AND ATMOSPHERIC ATTENUATION • CAPABILITIES UN-EXPLOITED

  49. EHF SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS • PRIMARILY SPOT COVERAGE • MOBILE TERMINALS • AJ, AS, LPI PROTECTION • LDR, MDR, HDR

  50. MILSTAR MISSION PROVIDE SURVIVABLE, ENDURING, MINIMUM ESSENTIAL COMMUNICATIONS FOR COMMAND & CONTROL OF THE WARFIGHTING FORCES OF THE UNITED STATES