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Why IHY? Historical Perspective
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Why IHY? Historical Perspective

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  1. Why IHY? Historical Perspective • First International Polar Year • January 1875 at the Academy of Sciences in Vienna Carl Weyprecht suggested a coordinated study of the north polar region • Polar meteorological and magnetic observations commenced on Aug 1, 1882 and concluded Sep 1, 1883 • Second International Polar Year • Scientific activities were significantly limited by the world-wide economic depression • Polar meteorological and magnetic observations to be made in 1932-1933, fifty years after the first IPY • International Geophysical Year • The IGY involved about 60,000 scientists from 66 nations • To obtain simultaneous, global observations on Earth and in space The obvious next step is to extend global studies into the Heliosphere to incorporate the drivers of Geophysical change into the global system-The IHY. IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  2. Why Now? STEREO • A large armada of existing or planned spacecraft are in place to provide the most comprehensive global measurements of the sun-earth interplanetary system yet obtained • Earth based resources can provide measurements of terrestrial effects at the poles and elsewhere • International collaboration is easier today than in previous international years with abundant and cheap electronic communication available • No single country has sufficient resources to obtain all required observations • The time is ripe for IHY global studies. ACE SOHO IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  3. Space Missions Operating in the IHY Timeframe IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  4. IHY Scientific Goals • Provide benchmark measurements of the response of the magnetosphere, the ionosphere, the lower atmosphere and Earth surface to identify global processes and drivers which affect the terrestrial environment • Global study of the Sun-heliosphere system outward to the heliopause to understand the external drivers of geophysical change • Foster international scientific cooperation in the study of Heliophysical phenomena now and in the future • To communicate the unique scientific results of the IHY to the interested scientific community and to the general public IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  5. Status • WSC/COSPAR planning session October 2002 • EGU Session in Spring 2003 • UK Community Workshop November 2003 • IAU International Planning Committee established • IHY plan submitted to ICSU December 2003 as part of the overall IPY plan for 2007 • COSPAR and AGU endorsements under consideration • IHY incorporated into response for Udall resolution on the IGY • US planning workshop held at Sac Peak Observatory April 20-22, 2004 • UN resolution underway IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  6. IHY and You IHY consists of a comprehensive campaign to observe and study the connected Sun-Earth system. The goals of IHY overlap with the goals of many organizations: Through the participation of you and your organization, we can ensure that the efforts of IHY overlap with and help fulfill the goals of other programs. • To obtain a coordinated set of observations to study, on Heliophysical scales, the solar-generated events which affect life and climate on Earth • To document and report these observations and provide a forum for the development of new scientific results utilizing these observations • To foster international cooperation in the study of Heliophysical phenomena now and in the future • To communicate the unique scientific results of the IHY to the scientific community as well as the world population IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  7. How IHY is Organized The IHY organization is developed in response to the goals and objectives of IHY. An International Steering Committeecoordinates all of the IHY activities, through its Science Working Groups, with three major thrusts. These IHY activities link directly to the success of IHY and require a long-term commitment for the planning and execution phases. We're seeking the participation of both individuals and organizations in these efforts. Science Working Groupscoordinate analysis and modeling efforts, and are responsible for planning IHY meetings, symposia and workshops through the three major thrusts: 1. Scientific Campaigns: oversees the IHY coordinated observing campaigns. The team reviews proposals for IHY campaigns, coordinates the input from the observatory representatives, and maintains the IHY observing and campaign schedule. 2. Scientific Meetings and Publications:arranges for communication of scientific results to broader science community 3. Public Outreach:responsible for increasing public awareness of IHY activities. This committee produces newsletters, maintains the website(s), writes articles, coordinates media affairs, and develops outreach products IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  8. IHY Steering Committee Research Organizations NASA, ESA, JAXA, NAS, DoD, NSF, etc. IHY Regional Steering Committees: Europe, US, Japan,etc. Science Working Groups Coordinate analysis and modeling efforts, coordinate meetings & symposia Scientific Campaigns Reviews proposals for IHY campaigns with observatory representatives, coordinates observing schedule Scientific Meetings & Publications Ensure that scientific objectives of IHY are well-developed and that the results of IHY are communicated to the greater scientific community. Public Outreach Newsletters, Website, Articles, Media Affairs, Outreach Products IGY History and Context Campaign Planners Emerging Nations Programs Scientific Institutions Media Affairs Production and Publications Observatory Reps and Coordinators Professional Organization Representatives and Coordinators IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  9. Scientific Campaigns The Scientific Campaigns are organized around three major activities: • Campaign Planning: Campaign proposers and planners develop plans for a broad range of scientific observing campaigns and propose campaigns to the Science Working Groups. Campaigns are coordinated between the science working groups, observatories, and emerging nations programs primarily through electronic communication. • Observatory Coordination: Observatory representatives and coordinators participate in the review of observing proposals, identifying and committing observatory resources if necessary, and executing observing campaigns. They determine whether an observation is feasible, and represent their observatory when committing to an observing schedule. • Emerging Nations Programs: Encourage participation in research programs by establishing contacts with and Identifying resources for programs in developing countries: putting the "I" in "IHY." Scientific Campaigns Campaign Planners Emerging Nations Programs The oversight of the Scientific Campaigns is coordinated through the Scientific Working Groups. Obs Reps & Coord IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  10. Scientific Meetings and Publications Scientific Meetings and Publications are necessary to ensure that the scientific objectives of IHY are broad and well-developed and that the results of IHY are communicated to the greater scientific community. • Scientific Institutions: Serve as a point of contact for an institution, establish websites for local coordination, develop outreach programs, and may assist in coordination of developing countries program. • Professional Organizations: Professional Organization representatives and coordinators work to ensure synergy and identify overlaps between the goals of their organizations and the goals of IHY. In addition to serving as contact points, they help organize special sessions on IHY science, coordinate publications through journals, and help plan campaigns that address the science objectives of their organization. Scientific Meetings & Publications Scientific Institutions Professional Organization Representatives and Coordinators IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  11. Public Outreach The Public Outreach initiative communicates the goals and activities of IHY by coordinating affairs with the media and making a variety of materials available, such as newsletters, websites, newspaper articles and other outreach products. Of course, IHY benefits from everyone's participation in the public outreach program. • Media Affairs: develop materials for and work directly with media organizations to ensure that the activities and opportunities of IHY are broadly communicated • IGY History and Context: help the IHY initiative plan for the future by learning from IGY's past successes, and serves as an inspiration for 2007. Contributions of "IGY reminiscence" articles are posted on the website and, if possible, will be bound into a single historical volume Public Outreach • Production and Publications: focus on website and other forms of information, production of materials and publications intended for public outreach. IGY History and Context Media Affairs Production and Publications IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  12. IGY History and Context It is difficult to fully assess impact of IGY 1957 on the space and earth sciences. Still, we would like to recreate IGY 1957 as much as we can. These items will be accumulated on an IGY historical website, and we will consider collecting and binding all of these items into a single volume. Looking back at 1957 and IGY is a powerful exercise which allows us to gauge the progress since 1957, refine our goals and activities, and identify the potential impact of IHY/IGY 2007. • IGY History: An effort to collect articles, anecdotes and information on the IGY activities. • IGY "Where are they now": Identifying members of the scientific community (and beyond) who played roles in IGY: Where are they today? • Science Legacy: In particular, IGY activities and data which are still in use. • 1957 Again: We'll look back at 1957 from a cultural perspective, purely for fun! IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  13. IHY Scientific Observing Campaigns The year 2007 will be during solar minimum, approaching the rise phase of the solar cycle. This period is optimal because: • Establishing the heliosphere/geospace structural "context" will require at least a month of observations. • Many processes affecting geospace and climate take weeks to months to fully dissipate. To track these processes and the coupling in its entirety, we require activity surrounded by relatively quiet phases. • The heliospheric interaction with geospace will consist primarily of slow solar wind pressure interaction, punctuated by some high-speed streams, coronal mass ejections, and solar flares. These events are anticipated to occur somewhat in isolation, to differentiate between the effects. • A full year (plus a continuance of necessary observations in 2008) will allow for a study of all four terrestrial seasons. IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  14. IHY Scientific Observing Campaigns The science goals of the IHY are broad and require the coordinated effort of observatories and scientists worldwide. The scientific success of IHY requires the encouragement of innovative research programs. However, the support of a large number of these programs can strain existing resources. • The IHY Scientific Campaigns will be facilitated through the Science Working Groups, which will stimulate campaign initiatives, establish scientific priorities, coordinate observations and assist in the management of resources. • Each of the observatories, instruments, and sources of relevant IHY data have at least one designated coordinator, who will serve as the primary contact when planning IHY observations. IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  15. How IHY Campaigns Work Step 1. A potential campaign must be proposed through at least one campaign leader, who will serve as the chief coordinator. -or- Step 1. A Science Working Group (SWG) identifies the need for a campaign and recruits a campaign leader, who will serve as the chief coordinator. Step 2. The campaign proposal includes the science objectives, lists potential participating observatories and scientists, and provides an explicit description of the required observations and resources. Step 3. The SWGs work with the Observatory Reps to determine the feasibility of the proposed observations and the scientific merit. When applicable, the Scientific Institution, Professional Organization reps and/or Emerging Nations Programs give input regarding campaign participation. Step 4. If a campaign is approved, the SWGs place the campaign on the IHY schedule, assisting the responsible Observatory Reps in executing the campaign observations (such as target coordination). Step 5. The Science Working Groups assist in the analysis and broaden the scientific impact of these campaigns by stimulating research, discussions, and activities at meetings. IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  16. An "Example" IHY Campaign Step 1. David Webb proposes a campaign to study which eruptions on the Sun produce magnetic clouds at Earth. Step 2. Webb and his collaborators produce an IHY campaign proposal: Title: Solar Eruptions Producing Magnetic Clouds at Earth and at 1 AU Brief Objective: Perform a study of the magnetic structure of solar erupting regions and the associated CME structure associated with magnetic clouds at 1 AU. Include characteristics of erupting region, CME properties, possible propagation effects in the solar wind, to determine which aspects of the solar eruption can be used to predict cloud properties such as total flux, helicity, orientation, speed, and density. Method: Examine in situ magnetic field, density, and solar wind velocity data for magnetic clouds. Obtain total flux, helicity, orientation, speed and density of cloud. Based on arrival time and speed of magnetic cloud, use a simple propagation model to determine source eruption time. Obtain solar magnetic field, H alpha, EUV, Soft X-ray and coronagraph data to obtain properties of eruption and erupting region. Observations Required: BBSO, Wilson and MDI Magnetograms (hourly), GOES SXI images (as often as available), synoptic H alpha observations, STEREO EUVI and Coronagraph images (twice hourly), ACE solar wind observations Campaign Duration: 2 months should produce at least 10 candidate events. IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  17. An "Example" IHY Campaign Step 3. The "Sun-Earth Transients" SWG forwards the proposal to the Observatory Representatives for BBSO, Wilson, MDI, GOES SXI, STEREO, and ACE SWEPAM, SWICS and MAG. Although only synoptic observations were requested, the SWG notes that the Meudon Observatory may be available to conduct a special high-cadence H-alpha campaign, and forwards the proposal to the Meudon Observatory Representative as well. The SWG also notes that another campaign to study the propagation characteristics of CMEs using a more intricate yet realistic model is also proposed. If possible, the SWG decides to run these campaigns concurrently so both objectives can enhance each other. Webb's proposal is reviewed, and it is approved by all of the observers except the STEREO Coronagraph Observatory Representative, who explains that observations will only be available hourly. The proposal is accepted contingent on the agreement that the research objective is still feasible with coronagraph observations at a decreased cadence. IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  18. An "Example" IHY Campaign Step 4. Webb's campaign is approved, and it is placed on the schedule to run daily from 14 July through 22 September. Other observatories are invited to participate if interested. A daily target is chosen by a modeler on Webb's team, and the target is forwarded to the participating observatories and posted on the IHY Campaign website. The observation data is catalogued via the IHY virtual campaign database, and is thereafter accessible to IHY researchers and the public. Step 5. The "Sun-Earth Transients" SWG assists in identifying researchers who may assist in the production of scientific results. They contact the campaign leader for the solar eruption propagation campaign and suggest that they work with Webb's team. They also identify a solar magnetic field model which includes non-potential effects, and suggest that Webb's team might benefit from using the model. IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  19. The IHY Campaign Site The IHY Campaign site contains all of the logistics for IHY campaign planning. It includes: • The Science Working Group Objectives, leaders and participants • Approved and Proposed Campaigns • Participating Observatories and Observatory Representatives • Campaign observing targets • Modelers • IHY participants interested in the Campaign's scientific topic • Scientific Publications Relevant to the Campaign's scientic topic • A searchable IHY Campaign calendar • A searchable IHY Science Planning Database • A searchable IHY Campaign Database IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  20. The IHY Science Planning Database The IHY Science Planning Database is a resource which allows IHY researchers and participants to identify scientists and observatories for campaign coordination. Because every observatory must have at least one responsible scientist, the records are indexed by participants. Searchable fields include: • Participant name • Observatory - Representative (if the participant will be serving as the science planner and coordinator for observatory operations. Observatory Reps must be able to commit their instrument or observatory when needed, and are responsible for the execution of the campaign observations.) • Observatory - Analysis (some participants may be experts in data analysis for a particular measurement or instrument, but will not be responsible for campaign planning) • Type of Observation • Institution • Country • Scientific or Professional Organization • Scientific Topic (AGU Index Terms) • IHY Campaign or Initiative IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  21. The IHY Science Planning Database College University Last name, First name, M.I. Enter Information Here Participant Name: Institution: Scientific or Professional Organizations: Country: Scientific Interest: Observatory: Observatory Rep? Analysis Expert? IHY Campaign: International Union of Geophysicists Union of International Geophysicists Geophysicists International Union Afghanistan IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  22. The IHY Campaign Database The IHY Campaign Database allows IHY researchers to easily identify and access IHY campaign data. Searchable fields include: • Start Date • End Date • Participating Observatory(s) • Participating Instrument(s) • Data Class • Data Format(s) • Campaign Number • Science Objective IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  23. IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  24. IHY Planning Schedule • 2004: Regional coordination meetings, campaigns begin to be defined, synergy/coordination discussions with professional organizations • 2005: Synthesis from regional to international, merging of science working groups and campaigns, "backfilling" missing initiatives • 2006: Prototyping year, preliminary work IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)

  25. Where You Fit In You can: • serve as a coordinator between IHY and your scientific institution or organization to ensure overlap in scientific objectives • serve on one of the science working groups to assist in the development of scientific initiatives • help with the public outreach effort • assist in the development of programs for developing countries • contribute a story or "reminiscence" about IGY 1957 • propose and help coordinate an observing campaign • serve as an observatory coordinator • be creative - new suggestions and ideas are always welcome! IHY needs you, and we have opportunities for participants at any level of commitment. Email us at ihy@ ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov for more information! IHY (http://ihy.gsfc.nasa.gov)