Chapter 10: Land Use and Urbanization Mr. Manskopf Notes also at http://www.manskopf.com
Essential Questions Covered • What are different land usages? • What are some local land usages? • Describe the impact of human activities on the land. • What are some local and federal laws governing land usage?
Section 1 Goals • What is the difference between land cover and land use? • Describe how people impact the land. • Explain how urbanization occurs. • Describe the environmental impacts of urbanization
For the first time in history, there are now more urban residents than rural residents.
Land Use and Land Cover Land cover:Vegetation and structures that cover land. Land use:Human activities that occur on land Humans change land cover, especially in urban areas. These changes have environmental and economic effects
What does this pie chart tell us? What is largest land use in U.S.?
Urban vs. Rural • Urban:Land mostly covered with buildings and roads (includes suburbs) • Rural:Any other type of land use or land cover (includes forests, cropland, etc.)
Urbanization • Occurs when people move from rural areas to cities • Cities are not new, but the enormous size of today’s cities is. More than 20 cities have at least 10 million residents.
Why are people moving to cities and leaving rural life behind? SHOULD WE CARE?
Environmental Costs of Urbanization Pollution:Increased waste, industrial byproducts, noise pollution, light pollution • What is noise pollution? Light pollution?
Light Pollution What the night should look like.
Environmental Costs of Urbanization • Heat islands:Cities, several degrees warmer than surrounding areas, affect local weather and trap pollutants WHY?
Environmental Costs of Urbanization • Imported resources:Fossilfuels are burned to import food, water, fuel, and raw materials.
Environmental Benefits of Urbanization • What do you think are some environmental benefits if cities?
Environmental Benefits of Urbanization • Efficiency:Less fuel and resources needed to distribute goods and services to residents • Universities and research centers:Urban areas tend to foster education and innovation. • Land Preservation:Dense urban centers leave room for agriculture, wilderness, biodiversity, and privacy.
Section 1 Review • What is the difference between land cover and land use? • Describe how people impact the land. • Explain how urbanization occurs. • Describe the environmental impacts of urbanization
Section 1 Quiz 1) Which type of area would Miami, Florida, be considered? • A. urban B. rural C. country D. suburban
2) What is one of the primary factors that draws people from rural areas to urban areas?A. less pollution B. more jobs C. more open space D. heat islands
3) A jackhammer on a city street is an example of what type of pollution?A. light B. water C. noise D. air
4) Trees, grass, crops, wetlands, water, buildings, and pavement are all examples ofA. land use. B. land cover. C. urban areas. D. rural areas.
5) The primary type of land cover in the United States today isA. forest land. B. cropland. C. urban land. D. parks and preserves.
6) Land that is sparsely populated and has few buildings or roads is defined as a(n)A. infrastructure. B. heat island. C. urban area. D. rural area.
7) The shift of a population from the countryside to cities is calledA. urbanization. B. infrastructure. C. land preservation. D. an ecological footprint.
Section 2: Sprawl Goals • Describe what contributes to sprawl and its patterns. • Explain the impacts of sprawl.
In 1950, 65% of the U.S. population lived in urban (including suburban) areas, while 35% lived rurally. In 2010, 89% was urban and only 11% rural.
What is sprawl? • The spread of low-density urban or suburban development outward from a dense urban core • Often, growth of suburban areas outpaces population growth because suburbs allow more space per person than cities
Primary Contributors to Sprawl • Population Growth • Increase per capita land use • Cheap gasoline • Decay of inner cities • Cheaper to build new than rebuild (less expensive land)
Primary Contributors to Sprawl 6) Improved road system 7) Affordable cars 8) Government subsidies of mortgages, infrastructure projects
Patterns of Sprawl • Uncentered commercial strip development • Low-density single-use residential development • Scattered, or leapfrog, development • Sparse street network
Impacts of Sprawl Transportation:Little to no public transportation • Must use car to get anything • Air pollution