Chapter 10: Land Use and Urbanization - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 10: Land Use and Urbanization
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Chapter 10: Land Use and Urbanization

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  1. Chapter 10: Land Use and Urbanization Mr. Manskopf Notes also at http://www.manskopf.com

  2. Essential Questions Covered • What are different land usages? • What are some local land usages? • Describe the impact of human activities on the land. • What are some local and federal laws governing land usage?

  3. Section 1 Goals • What is the difference between land cover and land use? • Describe how people impact the land. • Explain how urbanization occurs. • Describe the environmental impacts of urbanization

  4. Most people used to live like this

  5. Increasingly people live like this.

  6. Major Urban Regions in U.S.

  7. For the first time in history, there are now more urban residents than rural residents.

  8. Land Use and Land Cover Land cover:Vegetation and structures that cover land. Land use:Human activities that occur on land Humans change land cover, especially in urban areas. These changes have environmental and economic effects

  9. What are some land uses and cover in Audubon?

  10. What does this pie chart tell us? What is largest land use in U.S.?

  11. What do these bar graphs show us?

  12. Urban vs. Rural • Urban:Land mostly covered with buildings and roads (includes suburbs) • Rural:Any other type of land use or land cover (includes forests, cropland, etc.)

  13. Urbanization • Occurs when people move from rural areas to cities • Cities are not new, but the enormous size of today’s cities is. More than 20 cities have at least 10 million residents.

  14. Why are people moving to cities and leaving rural life behind? SHOULD WE CARE?

  15. Environmental Costs of Urbanization Pollution:Increased waste, industrial byproducts, noise pollution, light pollution • What is noise pollution? Light pollution?

  16. Noise Pollution

  17. Light Pollution What the night should look like.

  18. Environmental Costs of Urbanization • Heat islands:Cities, several degrees warmer than surrounding areas, affect local weather and trap pollutants WHY?

  19. What can cities do to reduce this impact?

  20. Environmental Costs of Urbanization • Imported resources:Fossilfuels are burned to import food, water, fuel, and raw materials.

  21. Environmental Benefits of Urbanization • What do you think are some environmental benefits if cities?

  22. Environmental Benefits of Urbanization • Efficiency:Less fuel and resources needed to distribute goods and services to residents • Universities and research centers:Urban areas tend to foster education and innovation. • Land Preservation:Dense urban centers leave room for agriculture, wilderness, biodiversity, and privacy.

  23. Section 1 Review • What is the difference between land cover and land use? • Describe how people impact the land. • Explain how urbanization occurs. • Describe the environmental impacts of urbanization

  24. Section 1 Quiz 1) Which type of area would Miami, Florida, be considered? • A. urban B. rural C. country D. suburban

  25. 2) What is one of the primary factors that draws people from rural areas to urban areas?A. less pollution B. more jobs C. more open space D. heat islands

  26. 3) A jackhammer on a city street is an example of what type of pollution?A. light B. water C. noise D. air

  27. 4) Trees, grass, crops, wetlands, water, buildings, and pavement are all examples ofA. land use. B. land cover. C. urban areas. D. rural areas.

  28. 5) The primary type of land cover in the United States today isA. forest land. B. cropland. C. urban land. D. parks and preserves.

  29. 6) Land that is sparsely populated and has few buildings or roads is defined as a(n)A. infrastructure. B. heat island. C. urban area. D. rural area.

  30. 7) The shift of a population from the countryside to cities is calledA. urbanization. B. infrastructure. C. land preservation. D. an ecological footprint.

  31. Describe this diagram. 8) What does it show?

  32. Section 2: Sprawl Goals • Describe what contributes to sprawl and its patterns. • Explain the impacts of sprawl.

  33. Los Angeles, CA, is one the most sprawling U.S. cities.

  34. In 1950, 65% of the U.S. population lived in urban (including suburban) areas, while 35% lived rurally. In 2010, 89% was urban and only 11% rural.

  35. What is sprawl? • The spread of low-density urban or suburban development outward from a dense urban core • Often, growth of suburban areas outpaces population growth because suburbs allow more space per person than cities

  36. Primary Contributors to Sprawl • Population Growth • Increase per capita land use • Cheap gasoline • Decay of inner cities • Cheaper to build new than rebuild (less expensive land)

  37. Primary Contributors to Sprawl 6) Improved road system 7) Affordable cars 8) Government subsidies of mortgages, infrastructure projects

  38. Contributors to Sprawl

  39. Patterns of Sprawl • Uncentered commercial strip development • Low-density single-use residential development • Scattered, or leapfrog, development • Sparse street network

  40. Per Capita Land Consumption

  41. Why care about sprawl?

  42. Impacts of Sprawl Transportation:Little to no public transportation • Must use car to get anything • Air pollution