DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A COMPUTER INSTRUCTIONAL PACKAGE ON ORGANIC CHEMISTRY FOR COLLEGE OF EDUCATION STUDENTS IN NIGERIAA P h.D RESEARCH PROPOSAL SEMINARBYAKPOKIERE, Roseline99/980N004 DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION FACULTY OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, NIGERIA. SUPERVISOR: PROF. A.S.OLORUNDARE
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION Background to the problem • The relevance of science education in developing countries. • Chemistry provides the basic knowledge and understanding of principles for technological advancement. • The knowledge of organic chemistry is required to understand its application to various studies. • Chemistry is one of the most difficult subjects in the school curriculum (Bojezuk, 1982). • Studies conducted revealed that organic chemistry is perceived by both students and teachers to be abstract, misconceived and difficult to comprehend (Oyelekan, 2006; Musa, 2010; and Onijamowo, 2010).
Cont’. • Some of the goals of the Colleges of Education as highlighted in the National Policy of Education (FRN, 2004) are to produce highly efficient teachers. • COE students declining performance in chemistry (NCCE, 2006 Report). • Efficacy of the use of computer in facilitating the teaching and learning of chemistry. • lack of indigenous computer software has been attributed to students low achievement in organic chemistry.
Statement of the problem • The performance of students in chemistry at both West African school certificate examination and at the colleges of Education examinations • ICT has the potentials of improving the existing methods of teaching • in schools. • Interactive computer learning packages has positive effect onlearner’s understanding of concepts inchemistry(Mathew&Secombe,2006;Oyelekan,2009;Tekmen,2006;Pektas,2008) • Difficult and abstract concepts in chemistry can be encoded or programmed into computer softwares. ( Oloruntegbe and Odutuyi, 2003),.
Purpose of the study The main purpose of this study is to: • Design and develop a Computer Instructional Package (OCIP) in organic chemistryfor colleges of education in Nigeria. • Validate the OCIP to conform to the acceptable standards of educational technology. • Determine the performance level of students in organic chemistry when taught using OCIP. • Determine the influence of scoring levels of students onperformance when taught organic chemistry using OCIP • Determine whether there will be difference a in the performance of male and female students when taught organic chemistry using OCIP.
Research questions The following questions will be answered in this study: • What are the procedures involved in the development of the OCIP? • Does the validation procedure of the developed OCIP conform • to educational technology standards? • What is the performance level of students when taught organic chemistry using OCIP? • What is the performance of students in organic chemistry on the basis of their scoring level when taught using OCIP? • Is there any difference in the performance of male and female students when taught organic chemistry using the OCIP?
Research hypotheses The following null hypotheses are formulated and will be tested to answer the research questions; • HO1 There will be no significant difference in the performance of high, medium and low scoring level of students taught organic chemistry using OCIP. • HO2 There will be no significant difference in the performance of male and female students taught organic chemistry using OCIP.
Scope of the study • Design, development and validation of Organic Chemistry Instructional Package (OCIP) • The content of the OCIP will be designed to cover an aspect of organic chemistry course CHE 123 as a course in the N.C.C.E Minimum standard. • The whole presentation will be made in Hyper Text Markup language (HTML) format so that it can also be up loaded on the internet. • The geographical scope will be limited to Federal College of Education Kontagora.
Clarification of Major Terms and Variables. The following terms would be clarified as used in the study; • OCIP • Information and Communication Technology (ICT • Computer Instructional package • Computer Aided Instruction • HTML • Hypermedia • Multimedia • CD-ROM • Microsoft Word: • Macromedia Firework • Organic Chemistry Achievement Test (OCAT
Significance of the study • The findings of this study would be beneficial to different categories of people involved in curriculum development, implementation, and evaluation such as; • Teachers, • Lecturers in the higher institutions, • Students, • Researchers, • Schools and • Educational policy makers.
CHAPTER TWO • REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The review has been carried out under the following headings: • The objectives and content of chemistry curriculum for colleges of education. • The nature and meaning of organic chemistry. • Theoretical framework for the study • Trends in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in educationglobally, and in Nigeria. • Instructional Systems Design Model. • Computer software Development, Validation and students ’achievement in chemistry. • Studies related to students’ difficulties in science and organic chemistry concepts. • Effects of gender and scoring level on students’ performance in science and chemistry. • Appraisal of the literature reviewed.
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY • Research Designs • Sampling and sampling techniques, • Procedure for developing the organic chemistry instructional package (OCIP) • Procedure for validating the organic chemistry instructional package • procedure for data collection • Data analysis techniques.
Research Design • Design and development type of research. • It involves the designing and developing an organic chemistry instructional package (OCIP) for NCE students in Nigeria. • The design and development would adapt the Dick and Carey (2005) model Instructional System Design (ISD). • The ten simple and interactive components which are simplified into the five basic phases of ADDIE namely; analyses, design, development, implement and evaluation will be the guide for the development of the OCIP. • The dynamic and interactive nature of the Dick and Carey (2006) model has necessitated its choice as the platform for the development of the organic chemistry instructional package (OCIP).
Sample and Sampling Technique • The population for this study will comprise all NCE chemistry students in Nigeria. • 100 level students in chemistry department, Federal College of Education (F.C.E) Kontagora would be purposively selected for this study. • The selection is on the basis that the course (CHE 123) is registered for by all NCE 1 level students in the department of chemistry as stipulated in the N.C.E. minimum standards for Colleges of Education.
Procedure for design and development of Organic Chemistry Instructional Package (OCIP) • The development of the OCIP shall be in four stages : design, development, implementation and evaluation. • computer expert, software developer, educational technologist and chemistry experts would be involved in the development of the OCIP. • The procedures would be in three phases which are: Phase one: Design and development of OCIP. • Creating and organizing the instructional content to support the programme requirements. • Identification of instructional objectives and the instructional strategy. • determine sequence and structure i.e specify media requirement based on hardware and software requirements (simulations and animations). • the integration of these steps would result into the OCIP . Phase two: Validation and reliability of the organic chemistry instructional package (OCIP) Phase three: Validation of OCIP for final evaluation.
Validation of the Organic Chemistry Instructional Package (OCIP) The following instruments would be used for the validation of the OCIP study; 1. Subject Content Validation Questionnaire 1 (Appendix 2). 2. Computer Expert Validation Questionnaire 2 (Appendix 3). 3. Students 'Interview Protocol. (Appendix 4) 4. Educational Technology Expert Validation Questionnaire-3 (Appendix 5) 5. Students’ Response Questionnaire 4 (Appendix 6). 6. Organic Chemistry Achievement Test (OCAT) (Appendix 7) • To determine instrument reliability a pilot study will be conducted by administering the OCAT to thirty (30) students in College of education Minna.
Validation of OCIP The validation of OCIP will be done in the following stages and in line with the Dick and Carey (2005). Stage 1: Consultant (Experts) validation, original copy of the OCIP will be given to two experts in computer, and two experts in Educational Technology for validation. The computer experts will also be given questionnaires 2 and 4 respectively Stage 2: One –to – one validation with students Stage 3: Students’ small group validation. One - to - One Validation • Ten (10) 100 level will be randomly selected from chemistry department in College of Education Minna
Cont’. • These students will also be interviewed at the end of this stage using the structured oral interview questions on the OCIP. • Small Group Validation • Twenty (20) purposively selected 100 level chemistry students from COE, Minna, to ascertain the efficiency of the previous corrections made. • As the instruction proceeds the researcher takes note of the students’ challenges in using the instructional package. • students Response questionnaire 4 will then be administered to the students (field trial)
Data AnalysisTechniques • Responses to Questionnaire on OCIP validation would be analyzed using percentages. • The students’ scores in organic chemistry achievement Test (OCAT) would be analyzed using percentages. • Hypotheses will be analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) from Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software.
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