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Bangun Tubuh Bakteri

Bangun Tubuh Bakteri

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Bangun Tubuh Bakteri

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  1. Bangun Tubuh Bakteri • Primer (utama, setiap bakteri memiliki) • Sekunder (tidak setiap bakteri memiliki)

  2. Primer • Dinding sel • Membran plasma • Sitoplasma • Ribosom • DNA • Granula penyimpanan

  3. 0.2 m 1 m Respiratory membrane Thylakoid membranes (a) Aerobic prokaryote (b) Photosynthetic prokaryote Figure 27.7a, b • Some prokaryotes • Do have specialized membranes that perform metabolic functions

  4. Endospore 0.3 m Figure 27.9 • Many prokaryotes form endospores • Which can remain viable in harsh conditions for centuries

  5. Sekunder • kapsul atau lapisan lendir • flagellum • pilus • fimbria • klorosom • vakuola gas • endospora

  6. GRAM POSITIVE peptidoglikan tebal dan asam teichoic GRAM NEGATIVE lipopolysacarida yang tersusun dari peptidoglikan tipis Dinding sel Bakteri

  7. Peptidoglikan

  8. Spesifikasi Bakterimenurut Gram • Gracilicutes - Gram negative dengan sel membran sekunder • Mollicutes - Gram negative tanpa sel membran sekunder • Firmicutes - Gram positive dengan peptidoglikan tebal • Mendosicutes – bakteri jenis Archaea

  9. Bergerak dengan flagela Tipe letak flagela • Monotrichous • Lophotrichous • Amphitrichous • Peritrichous

  10. Cara Memperoleh Makanan • BAKTERI HETEROTROF Makanan berupa senyawa organik dari organisme lain • Bakteri saprofit : mengurai sisa organisme atau produk organisme lainnya • Bakteri parasit : dari inangnya (manusia, hewan, tumbuhan). • Bakteri patogen • BAKTERI AUTOTROF Mampu membuat makanannya sendiri • Bakteri fotoautotrof • Bakteri kemoautotrof

  11. Bakteri berdasarKebutuhan Oksigen • BAKTERI AEROB, membutuhkan oksigen Proses oksidasi amonia NH3 2 NH3 + 3 O2 2 HNO2 + 2 H2O + energi Proses oksidasi ion nitrit HNO3 2 HNO2 + O2 2 HNO3 • BAKTERI ANAEROB, tidak membutuhkan oksigen, prosesnya disebut fermentasi. • Bakteri anaerob obligat • Bakteri anaerob fakultatif

  12. In the cyanobacterium Anabaena • Photosynthetic cells and nitrogen-fixing cells exchange metabolic products Photosynthetic cells Heterocyst 20 m Figure 27.10

  13. 1 m Figure 27.11 • In some prokaryotic species • Metabolic cooperation occurs in surface-coating colonies called biofilms

  14. Obligate aerobes • Require oxygen • Facultative anaerobes • Can survive with or without oxygen • Obligate anaerobes • Are poisoned by oxygen

  15. Tetanus Typhoid fever Diphtheria Syphilis Tuberculosis Pneumonia Meningitis Cholera Food-borne illness Leprosy Macam-macam penyakit oleh bakteri

  16. Reproduksi bakteri • Aseksual : pembelahan biner • Seksual : • Transformasi • Transduksi: menggunakan virus to help • konjugasi

  17. Konjugasi

  18. Jenis Jenis bakteri

  19. Rhizobium (arrows) inside a root cell of a legume (TEM) Nitrosomonas (colorized TEM) Chromatium; the small globules are sulfur wastes (LM) Fruiting bodies of Chondromyces crocatus, a myxobacterium (SEM) Bdellovibrio bacteriophorus Attacking a larger bacterium (colorized TEM) Helicobacter pylori (colorized TEM). 2.5 m • Proteobacteria 1 m 0.5 m Chromatium; the small globules are sulfur wastes (LM) 5 m 10 m Fruiting bodies of Chondromyces crocatus, a myxobacterium (SEM) Bdellovibrio bacteriophorus Attacking a larger bacterium (colorized TEM) 2 m Figure 27.13

  20. Chlamydias, spirochetes, Gram-positive bacteria, and cyanobacteria 2.5 m Chlamydia (arrows) inside an animal cell (colorized TEM) 5 m Leptospira, a spirochete (colorized TEM) 1 m 5 m Hundreds of mycoplasmas covering a human fibroblast cell (colorized SEM) Streptomyces, the source of many antibiotics (colorized SEM) 50 m Two species of Oscillatoria, filamentous cyanobacteria (LM) Figure 27.13

  21. Peranan Bakteri Bifidobacterium lactobacillus plantarum (L.plantarum) yang bisamengusir gas dalamperutdanketidaknyamanan yang terkaitdengangangguan BAB.

  22. Antibiotik

  23. Biogas Mocaf

  24. 2. Bioteknologi Modern • Rekayasagenetikpadaselbakterimampumenambahdiversifikasidankuantitasprodukbioteknologi. Pengembangandanproduksihormonmanusia, protein darah, interferon, dan protein untukvaksinsekarangdapatdilakukandenganmenggunakanbakteri yang sudahtermodifikasi. • 3. Perombakan Material (Biodeterioration)Thiobacillusferooxidans

  25. Figure 27.17 • Prokaryotes are the principal agents in bioremediation • The use of organisms to remove pollutants from the environment

  26. Tetracyclines: Streptomyces side effects include yellowing of developing teeth Hillary Clinton has yellow teeth. The original, completely unedited picture

  27. Prokaryotes are also major tools in • Mining • The synthesis of vitamins • Production of antibiotics, hormones, and other products

  28. Penemuan di bidang Mikrobiologi

  29. Dihasilkan : Bacillus sp, Clostridium sp • Bacillus stearothermophilus – spora - indikator alat sterilisasi • Bacillus anthracis - spores - “biological warfare”

  30. Questions?

  31. Applications • Ekstraksi carotene dari halobacteria sebagai penambah cita rasa makanan dan sebagai zat pewarna pangan • Untuk fermentasi kecap asin dan saus ikan Thai

  32. BIOINSEKTISIDA - Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) • BAKTERI GRAM POSITIF, BERSPORA • CIRI KHAS • PROTEIN KRISTAL (PROTEIN CRY) • TOKSIN INSEKTISIDAL • SUMBER Bt : • TANAH • SERANGGA SAKIT • AIR

  33. The world’s toughest bacterium • pigmen karotenoid  pembersih molekul radikal bebas  meningkatkan sifat resisten DNA-nya terhadap molekul radikal • Bioremediasi limbah B3 yang terkontaminasi radioaktif  “SUPERBUG”

  34. Antibiotic production Streptomyces coelicolor colonies The wild-type colonies are covered with grey aerial mycelium and spores; the reddish mutant colonies are not forming aerial mycelium. The red mycelium colour and the dark background is from the antibiotics produced by Streptomyces coelicolor Geosmin : produced by filamentous actinomycetes • gives soils characteristic earthy odor

  35. Agrobacterium tumefaciens

  36. Archaebacter/bakteri kuno

  37. Table 27.2 Archaea • Archaea share certain traits with bacteria • And other traits with eukaryotes

  38. Some archaea • Live in extreme environments • Extreme thermophiles • Thrive in very hot environments

  39. Figure 27.14 • Extreme halophiles • Live in high saline environments

  40. Methanogens • Live in swamps and marshes • Produce methane as a waste product

  41. Concept 27.4: Prokaryotes play crucial roles in the biosphere • Prokaryotes are so important to the biosphere that if they were to disappear • The prospects for any other life surviving would be dim

  42. Chemical Recycling • Prokaryotes play a major role • In the continual recycling of chemical elements between the living and nonliving components of the environment in ecosystems

  43. Chemoheterotrophic prokaryotes function as decomposers • Breaking down corpses, dead vegetation, and waste products • Nitrogen-fixing prokaryotes • Add usable nitrogen to the environment

  44. 5 µm Figure 27.16 Pathogenic Prokaryotes • Prokaryotes cause about half of all human diseases • Lyme disease is an example