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BIODIVERSITY I BIOL 1051 TAXONOMY

BIODIVERSITY I BIOL 1051 TAXONOMY

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BIODIVERSITY I BIOL 1051 TAXONOMY

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  1. BIODIVERSITY IBIOL 1051TAXONOMY Professor Marc C. Lavoie mlavoie@uwichill.edu.bb

  2. Definitions • Taxonomy: Science of biological classification. • Classification: • « Natural »: mutual similarities • Phylogenetic: evolutive relationship. • Nomenclature: • attribution of names to taxonomic groups in accordance with the published rules. • Identification: • Practical aspect of taxonomy. Process by which it is determined that a particular isolate belongs to a known taxon.

  3. Main taxonomic ranks

  4. Main taxonomic ranks • EMPIRES: • ARCHEA • BACTERIA • EUKARYA • GENUS • SPECIES

  5. Criteria for the classification of organisms • Morphological • Physiological • Metabolic • Ecological • Genetic* • Molecular*

  6. Main organisms classification systems • Two Kingdoms System • Five Kingdoms System • Six Kingdoms System • Eight Kingdoms System • Universal Phylogenetic Tree (The Tree of LIFE)

  7. Two Kingdoms System Animalia Plantae

  8. Five Kingdoms System • CLASSIFICATION CRITERIA • Mode of Nutrition • Metabolism • Mode of Reproduction • Type of Motility • Forms

  9. Six Kingdoms System • Monera or Prokaryota are divided into two kingdoms: • Eubacteria • Archaea

  10. Eight Kingdoms System • Two Empires and eight Kingdoms. • Empire Bacteria:Eubacteria & Archaea. • Empire Eukaryota: Six eukaryotic Kingdoms. Two new Kingdoms: • Archezoa: Unicellular eukaryotes (Giardia) no Golgi, mitochondria, chloroplasts or peroxysomes. • Chromista: photosynthetic, chloroplasts in the lumen of RER. (Diatoms, Brown algae, Cryptomonads & Oomycetes).

  11. RECENT CLASSIFICATION

  12. Universal phylogenetic tree • Bacteria: • prokaryotes, • membrane lipids : diesters of diacyl-glycerol, • rRNA :16S. • Archaea: • procaryotes, • membrane lipids : tetraethers of diglycerol or diethers of isoprenoid-glycerol, • rRNA: 16S. • Eukaryota: • eukaryote, • membrane lipids : diesters of acyl-glycerol, • rRNA: 18S.

  13. EUBACTERIA

  14. ARCHEA

  15. EUKARYA

  16. Classification based on the acquisition of organelles

  17. Patterson 1993

  18. Cavalier-Smith, 2004

  19. Unikonts Bikonts Adl et al 2005

  20. Embley & Martin 2006

  21. SIX CLUSTERS OF EUKARYOTES • 1. AMOEBOZOA • 2. OPISTOKONTA • 3. RHIZARIA • 4. ARCHAEPLASTIDA • 5. CHROMALVEOLATA • 6.EXCAVATA