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Latin 1

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Latin 1

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  1. Latin 1 Stage 10

  2. Agenda • Octavian and the Second Triumvirate • Introduction to new vocabulary • Stage 10 (intro to new packet) • I would love to do some readings <3 • OBJECTIVES: LEARN ABOUT PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN LATIN, UNDERSTAND PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN LATIN • UPCOMING ASSESSMENTS: VOCABULARY QUIZ – NEXT MONDAY

  3. Caesar is dead.

  4. Amnesty • Four days after Caesar’s death, amnesty (pardon) was granted and both parties were dining together. • At Caesar’s funeral, his will was read. • Money was given to every citizen. • Land was given to the people • ¾ of Caesar’s estate was giving to ……. Octavian • Not Antony. • Octavian, was Caesar’s grand nephew, and 19 year old political master mind.

  5. Now what? • Octavian is a genius. (Did I say that yet?) • He gives the money from Caesar’s will to the people. Everyone likes him, no one yet fears him. • Octavian goes with Antony to assist the fight with Decimus Brutus. Octavian at some point becomes consul – at 19 years old.

  6. Octavian

  7. Second Triumvirate • In 43 B.C., the LexTitia is passed making the Second Triumvirate a legal entity. • The Second Triumvirate is composed of: Octavian, Marc Antony, and Lepidus. • First thing the triumvirate does: proscriptions. • Namely – Cicero is assassinated by Antony’s men. • Cicero’s tongue and hands are cut off and hung from the rostra in the forum.

  8. Interesting fact about the Second Triumvirate • It was established in order to save the Republic…. • It was essentially an alliance of three dictators Did they save the Republic?

  9. A world divided • Marc Antony: Control of the north and east • Octavian: Italy and the west • Lepidus:: Spain and Africa

  10. Battle of Philippi • The peace between the triumvirs and the conspirators however did not last long. • Once the triumvirs had become situated, they began the process of the conspirators’ destruction. • The conspirators were lurking in northern Greece, and in 42 B.C. Octavian and Antony march against them.

  11. Battle of Philippi • At the first part of the battle, Antony succeed and Octavian does not. In total, there were about 100,000 people on each side. • At the second part of the battle, Brutus, hestitating to leave from his defensive position on the hill, is slow to react on the battlefield. • Octavian is able to storm the gates before Brutus was able to properly organize. • The first win and a major victory for Octavian.

  12. Lepidus • In 36 B.C. Lepidus is forced out of the triumvirate by Octavian. • He was accused of taking over power in Sicily and inciting a rebellion, and that gave Octavian leave to remove him of his powers.

  13. Marc Antony • Marc Antony meets Cleopatra first in Rome in 40 BC. There they fall in love and have two children. • Shortly thereafter, Marc Antony and Octavia, Octavian’s sister, are married to show unity in the triumvirate • Marc Antony, however, leaves for Egypt (without Octavia) a few years later, where he reencounters Cleopatra. • He uses Cleopatra’s money to conquer the areas Armenia and Syria for Rome.

  14. Unhappiness between the triumvirs

  15. Octavian and Antony • A propaganda war emerges between Octavian and Antony as to to is better for the state. • Octavian argues that Antony has gone barbaric and has become more of an Egyptian, with Egyptian allegiances, than Roman. Marc Antony was also accused of acquiring new provinces and starting wars without Senate approval. • Antony accused Octavian of trying to take Rome for himself.

  16. Octavian and Antony • Eventually their hatred got to the point where Antony divorced Octavia. Although Antony and Octavia were never truly “husband and wife” – their divorced publically symbolized the political split between the triumvirs.

  17. Uh Oh. This will in fact all go down in flames.

  18. Agenda • History: Battle of Actium • Vocabulary practice • Future tense of the third and fourth conjugation • Verb IDs (rapid fire) • Discussion of irregular comparison of adjectives, begin my grandmothers’ chair. • UPCOMING ASSESSMENTS: VOCABULARY QUIZ NEXT FRIDAY.

  19. Battle of Actium • A paper was found (perhaps forged) accusing Marc Antony of giving Roman lands to Cleopatra/ Egypt. • Having done that without the Senate’s (or Octavian’s) approval, Octavian was able to declare war on Antony. • Octavian had strategically obtained the areas of Dalmatia (modern northern Greece/ Croatia) a few years earlier and built roads to there from Rome.

  20. Battle of Actium • Octavian declares war,and the two armies (of Octavian and Marc Antony/Cleopatra) both begin sailing to Greece. • Octavian was very much helped by his friend Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (aka Agrippa) who was a talented naval commander and took the lead in this battle. • Agrippa sails to Greece after Octavian with 300 ships and is able to cut off Antony’s ships in the process.

  21. Battle of Actium • Marc Antony then landed on the Actium Peninsula and establish a base camp there. • He then tried to engage Octavian and Agrippa in a land war – however Octavian was not silly enough to try and attack Antony (Caesar’s former right hand man) in land battle. • Instead Octavian waits it out – Agrippa had used his ships to close off Antony and Cleopatra. They were now lacking food supplies.

  22. Battle of Actium • The two camps end up waiting several months before engaging in battle. Agrippa spends his time going up and down the Grecian coast taking cities and gaining support. • Antony and Cleopatra eventually need to get off of the peninsula – and so the battle becomes fought on the sea.

  23. Battle of Actium • Finally, on September 1st, 31 B.C. the two armies engage in battle in the afternoon. • Agrippa and Octavian support the flanks of their navy and work hard to prevent Antony from surrounding them. • Antony is able to break through the weak part of the center and Cleopatra follows.

  24. Battle of Actium • Although Antony, Cleopatra, and the immediate ships behind them are safe, 200 of Antony’s 300 ships are either sunk or captured. • Demoralized, Antony’s land army surrendered. • Antony and Cleopatra then return home to Alexandria, defeated.

  25. Battle of Actium • Octavian then went to Greece and Asia. He decided to spend the winter at Samos.

  26. Battle of Actium • While at Samos, Octavian heard from a pleading Cleopatra,who offered up Egypt in return for the safety of her children. • Octavian then sailed to Egypt. • Marc Antony, however, tried to fight back with the little forces he had. He failed miserably. • Octavian besieged Alexandria

  27. Battle of Actium • Antony, at some point believing that Cleopatra was either captured or killed, committed suicide. • After a failed attempt to negotiate with Octavian, Cleopatra followed Antony, and killed herself as well. (rumor says with a snake bite…who knows if it is true?!) • Octavian kills Caesar’s illegitimate child (with Cleopatra), Caesarion, and takes Antony and Cleopatra’s twins home with him to be raised by Octavia.

  28. Battle of Actium • Octavian, now sole ruler of the Roman provinces, is able to proclaim himself Princeps. • He is named Augustus in 27 B.C. after a period of reorganization in Rome.


  30. “When I leave my studying to the last minute”

  31. Vocab •

  32. Verb IDs

  33. Augustus • In 31 B.C. Augustus is without question the most powerful man in the Roman “Republic” – he has control of 60 legions. • He gives back the legions to the state and in return is granted a proconsulship for 10 years in Gaul, Illyria, and Spain. • In 27 B.C. he is granted the title of Augustus (the most revered one) • In 23 B.C. after serious illness, he is given the greatest imperium and the power of tribune

  34. Augustus • Augustus redefines the senate in terms of net worth. • Senate goes back down from 900 men (Caesar) to 600, and power to pass laws goes to the Senate (no more assemblies). • Augustus does not interfere with elections, although he submits recommendations/endorses candidates. • Egypt becomes Augustus’ private property – he later added it to the empire • He establishes the praetorian guard (Secret service) • Freedmen now have the ability to climb the social ladder.

  35. Augustus • Morality laws in 19 B.C. • Fixes aqueducts, adds temples, a bath complex, theaters • Gave grain and money (additional) to the poor • Consul 13 times, tribune 27 times, never accepted dictatorship • Created peace between Rome and neighboring tribes (PAX ROMANA) • Wife of 50 years was the beautiful Livia

  36. Augustus • Quotations: “I found Rome a city of brick and left it a city of marble.” “Make haste slowly” “Livia, live remembering our marriage, and farewell” – last words

  37. Tiberius • Augustus’ first choice for successor: Marcellus (nephew)(died in 23 B.C.) • Augustus’ second choice for successor: Agrippa (best friend) (died in 12 B.C.) • Augustus’ third & fourth choice for successor: Gaius & Lucius (Agrippa’s sons, Augustus’ grandsons) (died in 4 AD and 2 AD respectively) • Augustus’ fifth choice for successor: Livia’s son (from a previous marriage), Tiberius

  38. Tiberius: 14 AD – 37 AD • Tiberius wanted to be everything but emperor. • He was an excellent general, and fought bravely. • He did not want to be emperor,and attempted to resign. He was only persuaded by his mother, Livia (who lives FOREVER). • He spent the majority of the end of his life, living in his villa in south Italy.

  39. Caligula 37 AD – 41 AD • Name means “little boots” - son of the General Germanicus & adopted nephew of Tiberius • Nothing sane about this man. • He killed anyone who crossed him, or who he perceived to be a threat, including most of his family. • Due to his lavish spending, and lack of mental sanity, the country went into a great debt in 39 A.D. and a great famine also ensued.

  40. Caligula • He believed he was a god (just FYI) • Once said that he had the audience forced into an arena at a gladiatorial games, because there were no more fighters and he wanted to be amused. • He also was accused of having illicit relations with all of his female relatives. • He reportedly planned to make his horse, Incitatus, a senator.

  41. Good things for Caligula? • Expanded in Mauretania (northern Africa) and Britain • Improved/rebuilt several harbors • Created an account of public funds • Brought back democratic elections (which Tiberius had faded out) .

  42. Claudius • DID NOT WANT TO BE EMPEROR. I REPEAT. DID NOT WANT TO BE EMPEROR • Had a stutter and a limp. Claudius literally means “limpy” • Relatively sane. • A lot of good public works for buildings, harbors, expansion in Britain, and aqueducts especially. • He re-defined the Roman religion and what practices (i.e. soothsayers) were or were not acceptable. • Also conquered the far east and north east (modern Serbia and north, Thracia, and Judaea).

  43. Claudius • He had the worst luck in women possible. Seriously. • His last wife (who was not necessarily the worst), killed him with poisoned mushrooms. This was Agrippina the Younger, his niece.

  44. Nero “the artist” • He defined how not to be emperor. EVER. • He was adopted by Claudius, by the force of Agrippina. • He was supposed to share the emperorship with his step-brother Britannicus. However, he killed Britannicus so… • Mommy dearest was a serious problem, she controlled him, mentally and emotionally. • Nero ends up killing her (on the second try) because she was too obsessive, and refused to let him marry Poppaea Sabina (an already married woman).

  45. Nero “the artist” • Stars in his own Neronian games in 62 AD • In the Naepolian games, he locked the gates and would not let people leave even while an earthquake was erupting. • In the Isthmian games, he earned 1108 1st places. • Said to have fiddled while Rome burned in 64 AD – the fiddle was not yet invented then. • Nero did take care of the city after the great fire, but he used part of the burnt space to build his own house, the DomusAurea (the golden house)

  46. Nero “the artist” • At some point, other army generals notice and someone says “time to overthrow him, not even being a good lyre player.” • A conspiracy begins against him, and Nero loses control of the armies. He commits suicide in his palace at Rome.

  47. Agenda • History: PaxRomana & it’s craziness • Grammar: Review worksheets that you did while I was gone; sentence practice in stage 10 packet • Translation: My grandmother’s chair • Upcoming Assessments: TEST ON STAGE 10 PACKET NEXT TUESDAY

  48. PaxRomana

  49. PaxRomana • A time of peace (relatively) and only minor expansion between 27 B.C. and 180 A.D. • Changes in government and empire are minimal.