Modern Iran (1951-today) Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh,Prime Minister of Iran • Became Prime Minister in 1951. • Took control the foreign oil companies. • Got rid of corrupt military officials. • Was taken out of power by the America CIA in 1953. • The Shah of Iran returns to power. Q4
Iran under shah reza pahlavi (1953-1979)
Shah Reza Pahlavi(r. 1941 – 1977) • Institutes Western reforms & ties with the West . • But, the majority of his people live in poverty. • Brutal punishments of opponents SAVAK Q5
The Shah & His Wife, Farah Iranian elite/upper- and educated classes: verypro-Western.
“The White Revolution”The Shah’s Reform Program (1963) Land reform – 90% of Iran’s peasants became land owners. Massive government-financed heavy industry (factories, etc) projects. Granted women more political power – the right to vote. Poured government money into education – especially in rural areas where illiteracy was very high.
The Iranian Revolution
Reasons for the Fall of the Shah • The Shah spent the oil profits for top of the line American military hardware. • Little money to reinvest back into the Iran. • Religious leaders angry with the Shah for too much “Westernization.” • Government corruption (lying, cheating, stealing). • The Shah’s constitutional violations (torturing, killing opponents) of the basic human rights of his citizens.
The Shah’s ChiefOpponents? Oil field workers. Students and other intellectuals. Middle class businessmen. Muslim leaders. Q6
Anarchy & Revolution The Shah leaves Iran on 1/16/79.
Ayatollah KhomeiniLeads the Revolution Khomeini returns to Iran on February 11, 1979. Q7
Ayatollah Khomeini(r. 1979-1989) • 1902 – 1989. • Became an Islamic scholar. • Began to speak out against the Shah in the 1960s. • Arrested and imprisoned several times by the Shah. • Deported in 1978 & went to France.
Triumphant Muslim Clerics & Iranian Soldiers A theocracy is created! Q8
Iran Revolutionary Poster When the devil leaves, the angel returns!
Militants demanded the Shah be returned to Iran to be put on trial. President Carter refused to force the Shah to return. 444 days later the hostages were released. Hostage Crisis
The Islamic Republic of Iran
Women in Iran A woman’s hijab represents her Islamic and moral values.
Political Cartoon Commentary The dictatorship is gone! Bring on the dictatorship!
Support for the Palestinian Cause Funds Hamas and Hezbollah. The Ayatollah with Yasir Arafat.
The Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)
Iraqi Soldiers At the Front • 375,000 Iraqi casualties & 60,000 POWs!
Iranian Soldiers • Over 1,000,000 Iranian casualties! Q11
Iran Since the Death of the Ayatollah Khomeini
Another Nuclear Power? US satellite photo of Iranian nuclear facility near Arak.
An American view of Iranian nuclear power PINOCCHIAYATOLLAH Scott Stantis (Birmingham News) 1/28/05
A view of Iran’s nuclear power. Nobody else (particularly Iran and Arab countries) should have nuclear weapons except Israel, says Bush. -- Hassan Bleybel 10/23/03
A “Shah” in theWaiting? Reza Pahlavi (III), 43 year-old son of the deposed Shah.
Bibliography • “23 Year Pictorial History of Iran.”http://home.att.net/~iranshahr/ • “Iranian.com.”www.iranian.com/Revolution/war.html. • “Iran Hostage Anniversary.” CBS News.www.cbsnews.com/stories/2001/01/18/iran/main265244.shtml.