soils agriculture and the future of food n.
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  2. Sumber: Diunduhdari:……………….. 21/12/2012 SUMBERDAYA ALAM DAN KEMANUSIAAN LAHAN PERTANIAN Agriculture can be defined as the systematic and controlled use of living organisms and the environment to improve the human condition. 'Agricultural land' is the land base upon which agriculture is practiced. Typically occurring on farms, agricultural activities are undertaken upon agricultural land to produce agricultural products. Although agricultural land is primarily required for the production of food for human and animal consumption, agricultural activities also include the growing of plants for fibre and fuels (including wood), and for other organically derived products (pharmaceuticals, etc).


  4. SUMBERDAYA ALAM • Agriculture – Food products, Coca, Drugs • Minerals – Diamonds, oil, Copper, Sand/Gravels etc. • Forests – Timber, Herbs, Animals, Parks etc • Water resources – Hydropower, Drinking and irrigation water, Lakes etc. • Nature Tourism Lahansawahdimusimkemarauditanamiubijalardenganhasilsekitar 40 ton umbi per ha. FotoSmnoAgst 2012 • Sumber: Natural Resources and Human Security. Er. Sunil Kumar Pokhrel • Kennesaw State University USA

  5. SUMBERDAYA ALAM • Sumber: Natural Resources and Human Security. Er. Sunil Kumar Pokhrel • Kennesaw State University USA • Over the Land • Agricultural – main products, cash products, Livestock, Herbs, Timber • Under the Land • Minerals, oil, Underground water, Stone • On the surface • Irrigation, Hydropower, River, Sand, river gravel, Snow mountain, National parks and animals Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. Additionally, irrigation also has a few other uses in crop production, which include protecting plants against frost, suppressing weed growing in grain fields and helping in preventing soil consolidation. In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dryland farming. Irrigation systems are also used for dust suppression, disposal of sewage, and in mining. Irrigation is often studied together with drainage, which is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. • Sumber: diunduhdari: ……………… 23/12/2012

  6. HUMAN SECURITY • Sumber: Natural Resources and Human Security. Er. Sunil Kumar Pokhrel • Kennesaw State University USA • Policy shift • 1994-UNDP definition of Human Security • Economic security-Assured basic income • Food Security-Physical and economic access to food as well as adequate purchasing power • Health Security-Minimum protection from diseases and unhealthy lifestyles. Food security is commonly defined as sustained access for all individuals to an adequate and safe supply of food for an active, healthy and productive life. • Sumber: diunduhdari: .....23/12/2012

  7. HUMAN SECURITY • Sumber: Natural Resources and Human Security. Er. Sunil Kumar Pokhrel • Kennesaw State University USA • Environmental security-Clean water, Air pollution, Global warming, Greenhouse gases, etc. • Personal security-Protect from physical violence, Domestic abuse, Crime. • Community security-Protect from loss of traditional relationships, ethnic and cultural value. • Political security-Human rights, Freedom of speech, etc Environmental Security There are three hierarchical levels at which the food insecurity paradigm can be considered to be acting so as to generate environmental insecurity, which then generates additional food insecurity. At the top is the state; the midlevel is the village or community; and at the bottom are households, the level at which the actors usually have greatest influence on the environment. • Sumber: diunduhdari: ..... 23/12/2012

  8. MINAT ttg KETAHANAN • Sumber: Natural Resources and Human Security. Er. Sunil Kumar Pokhrel • Kennesaw State University USA Special feature on land tenure: securing land for the future Land is vital for farmers and the communities in which they live. Not only does it provide them with economic means to create their livelihood, but it is their most important social and cultural asset. A farmer without land has nothing. A farmer with land has a respected place in the community and society at large. However, owning land or having secure access to it are not always readily achieved. This is particularly true in many poor countries, where legal and cultural restrictions on land rights present a strong obstacle for rural people, particularly the poorest and most vulnerable among them. In many cases, women are not even entitled to land. • Who own the natural resources • How to distribute and redistribute the fruit of natural resources • Who is responsible for security of Natural resource centers, Transmission lines and Transportation • Need for new security force other than national army to protect? • Sumber: diunduhdari: ..... 23/12/2012

  9. MINAT ttg KETAHANAN • Sumber: Natural Resources and Human Security. Er. Sunil Kumar Pokhrel • Kennesaw State University USA • Natural resource potential can be utilized? • Need Security (protection) • Need Investment • Need Market • Need technology • Need Manpower – Upward Migration • Upward Migration creates a new sets of conflict The Relationships among Sustainable Development, Sustainable Land Management, Sustainable Agriculture, and Sustainable Soil Management. (Redrawn from Dumanski 1997) • Sumber: diunduhdari: …..23/12/2012

  10. PERTANIAN SAAT INI We have converted 38% of Earth’s surface for agriculture, the practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock for human use and consumption. Croplands(for growing plant crops) and rangelands (for grazing animal livestock) depend on healthy soil. Agricultural Capability Classes Diunduhdari: …… 20/12/2012

  11. Natural Capital Croplands Croplands Ecological Services Economic Services Ecological Services Economic Services • Help maintain water flow and • soil infiltration • Provide partial erosion protection • Can build soil organic matter • Store atmospheric carbon • Provide wildlife habitat for some • species • Food crops • Fiber crops • Crop genetic • resources • Jobs • Help maintain water flow and soil infiltration • Provide partial erosion protection • Can build soil organic matter • Store atmospheric carbon • Provide wildlife habitat for some species • Food crops • Fiber crops • Crop genetic resources • Jobs Diunduhdari: …… 20/12/2012

  12. LAHAN = SUMBERDAYA EKONOMI Land is the economic resource encompassing natural resources found within a nation economy. This resource includes timber, land, fisheries, farms and other similar natural resources. Land is usually a limited resource for many economies. Although some natural resources, such as timber, food and animals, are renewable, the physical land is usually a fixed resource. Nations must carefully use their land resource by creating a mix of natural and industrial uses. Gross Margin: The simplest economic measure is the gross margin, which is the cash flow out less the cash flow in, on a per unit area (normalized or standardized) or aggregate (per-field or per-farm) basis, in one accounting period (usually a year). The gross margin can be expressed in terms of the return to labor or the return to land. Return to labor: the farm family’s labor is not included as an expense, and the gross margin must be sufficient to allow the farm family an adequate income. This makes most sense if the gross margin is non-normalized, i.e., the actual amount received for the whole farm. Return to land: the farm family’s labor is included in the expenses, as if the labor had been contracted. If the ‘wage’ is at a reasonable level, the gross margin only has to be positive for the land use to be feasible. This makes most sense if the gross margin is normalized, i.e., the amount received per unit land area. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  13. LAHAN ….. Land, In economics, the resource that encompasses the natural resources used in production. In classical economics, the three factors of production are land, labour, and capital. Land was considered to be the “original and inexhaustible gift of nature.” In modern economics, it is broadly defined to include all that nature provides, including minerals, forest products, and water and land resources. While many of these are renewable resources, no one considers them “inexhaustible.” The payment to land is called rent. Automated Land Evaluation System ‘ALES’. How ALES links land characteristics with economic values Starting from the physical inventory of the characteristics of a land area, how do we arrive at an economic value of a land use if implemented on that land area? By means of severity levels of Land Qualities, which can either limit yield (and thus reduce income) or increase costs. Land Qualities, and their diagnostic Land Characteristics, can be divided into two type for this analysis: Location-independent (in-situ) and Location dependent. E.g. (1) soil and climate qualities and characteristics, (2) distance, Adjacency. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  14. LAND QUALITY INDICATOR (LQI) Some generic indicators of land units that must be monitored, especially for: Condition of land resources, both positive and negative; Areas arising from different land uses; Rates of adaptation and adoption of recommended/suggested practices; Farm management practices; Yields and other outputs resulting from project interventions or other development; Rural development issues such as land tenure, population density; Sumberdaya air; Perikanandanakuakultur; Pengelolaanhutan; Ketersediaanhareadalamtanah. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  15. The holistic concept of Land (FAO ,1976; FAO, 1995) : "Land is a delineable area of the earth's terrestrial surface, encompassing all attributes of the biosphere immediately above or below this surface, including those of the near-surface climate, the soil and terrain forms, the surface hydrology (including shallow lakes, rivers, marshes and swamps), the near-surface sedimentary layers and associated groundwater reserve, the plant and animal populations, the human settlement pattern and physical results of past and present human activity (terracing, water storage or drainage structures, roads, buildings, etc.).“ FUNGSI LAHAN: FungsiProduksi FungsiLingkunganBiotik Climate-regulative function Hydrologic function Storage function Waste and pollution control function Living space function Archive or heritage function Fungsiruangpenghubung. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  16. KERANGKA-KERJA EVALUASI LAHAN DARI FAO 1976 LAND QUALITIES RELATED TO PRODUCTIVITY FROM CROPS OR OTHER PLANT GROWTH Crop yields (a resultant of many qualities listed below). Moisture availability. Nutrient availability. Oxygen availability in the root zone. Adequacy of foothold for roots. Conditions for germination. Workability of the land (ease of cultivation). Salinity or sodicity. Soil toxicity. Resistance to soil erosion. Pests and diseases related to the land. Flooding hazard (including frequency, periods of inundation). Temperature regime. Radiation energy and photoperiod. Climatic hazards affecting plant growth (including wind, hail, frost). Air humidity as affecting plant growth. Drying periods for ripening of crops. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  17. FRAMEWORK FOR LAND EVALUATION OF 1976 LAND QUALITIES RELATED TO DOMESTIC ANIMAL PRODUCTIVITY Productivity of grazing land. Climatic hardships affecting animals. Endemic pests and diseases. Nutritive value of grazing land. Toxicity of grazing land. Resistance to degradation of vegetation. Resistance to soil erosion under grazing conditions. Availability of drinking water. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  18. FRAMEWORK FOR LAND EVALUATION OF 1976 LAND QUALITIES RELATED TO FOREST PRODUCTIVITY The qualities listed may refer to natural forests, forestry plantations, or both. Mean annual increments of timber species Types and quantities of indigenous timber species. Site factors affecting establishment of young trees. Pests and diseases. Fire hazard. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  19. FRAMEWORK FOR LAND EVALUATION OF 1976 LAND QUALITIES RELATED TO MANAGEMENT AND INPUTS The qualities listed may refer to arable use, animal production or forestry. Terrain factors affecting mechanization (trafficability). Terrain factors affecting construction and maintenance of access-roads (accessibility). Size of potential management units (e.g. forest blocks, farms, fields). Location in relation to markets and to supplies of inputs. FAO. 1976. A framework for land evaluation. Soils Bulletin 32, FAO, Rome. 72 p. Also, Publication 22, (R. Brinkman and A. Young (eds.), ILRI, Wageningen, The Netherlands. FAO. 1995. Planning for sustainable use of land resources: towards a new approach, W.G. Sombroek and D. Sims. Land and Water Bulletin 2, FAO, Rome. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  20. Land qualities related to vertical components of a natural land unit ATMOSPHERIC QUALITIES Atmospheric moisture supply: rainfall, length of growing season, evaporation, dew formation. Atmospheric energy for photosynthesis: temperature, daylength, sunshine conditions. Atmospheric conditions for crop ripening, harvesting and land preparation: occurrence of dry spells. LAND COVER QUALITIES Value of the standing vegetation as "crop", such as timber. Value of the standing vegetation as germ plasm: biodiversity value. Value of the standing vegetation as protection against degradation of soils and catchment. Value of the standing vegetation as regulator of local and regional climatic conditions. Regeneration capacity of the vegetation after complete removal. Value of the standing vegetation as shelter for crops and cattle against adverse atmospheric influences. Hindrance of vegetation at introduction of crops and pastures: the land "development" costs. Incidence of above-ground pests and vectors of diseases: health risks of humans and animals. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  21. Land qualities related to vertical components of a natural land unit LAND SURFACE AND TERRAIN QUALITIES Surface receptivity as seedbed: the tilth condition. Surface treatability: the bearing capacity for cattle, machinery, etc. Surface limitations for the use of implements (stoniness, stickiness, etc.): the arability. Spatial regularity of soil and terrain pattern, determining size and shape of fields with a capacity for uniform management. Surface liability to deformation: the occurrence or hazard of wind and water erosion. Accessibility of the land: the degree of remoteness from means of transport. The presence of open freshwater bodies for use by humans, animals or fisheries. Surface water storage capacity of the terrain: the presence or potential of ponds, on-farm reservoirs, bunds, etc. Surface propensity to yield run-off water, for local water harvesting or downstream water supply. Accumulation position of the land: degree of fertility renewal or crop damaging by overflow or overblow. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  22. Land qualities related to vertical components of a natural land unit KUALITAS TANAH PHYSICAL SOIL FERTILITY: the net moisture storage capacity in the rootable zone. PHYSICAL SOIL TOXICITY: the presence or hazard of waterlogging in the rootable zone (i.e. the absence of oxygen). CHEMICAL SOIL FERTILITY: the availability of plant nutrients. Chemical soil toxicity: salinity or salinization hazard; excess of exchangeable sodium. Biological soil fertility: the N-fixation capacity of the soil biomass; and its capacity for soil organic matter turnover. Biological soil toxicity: the presence or hazard of soil-borne pests and diseases. Substratum (and soil profile) as source of construction materials. Substratum (and soil profile) as source of minerals. Biological soil toxicity: the presence or hazard of soil-borne pests and diseases. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  23. Land qualities related to vertical components of a natural land unit SUBSTRATUM OR UNDERGROUND QUALITIES Groundwater level and quality in relation to (irrigated) land use. Substratum potential for water storage (local use) and conductance (downstream use). Presence of unconfined freshwater aquifers. Substratum (and soil profile) suitability for foundation works (buildings, roads, canals, etc.) DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  24. KETAHANAN LAHAN Some concepts of resilience of land and its productivity, comparing the situation in someindustrialized countries (A) with that of most developing countries (B). (Sombroek, 1993) KetahanansuatuLahan : The capacity of the land to recover quickly to former levels of productivity - or to resume the trend to increased productivity - after an adverse influence such as drought, floods, or human abandonment or mismanagement. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  25. MAJOR ISSUES OF LAND MANAGEMENT…. Decline in quality of soils as rooting environments; Erosion and loss of topsoil by wind and water; Loss of vegetation cover, including woody perennials; Acidification, soil fertility decline and plant nutrient depletion; Salinity and salinization, particularly in irrigated systems. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  26. KUALITAS LAHAN PERTANIAN Deep Percolation Deep percolation is when water moves down through the soil profile below the root zone and cannot be utilized by plants. Diunduhdari: … … 24/12/2012

  27. KUALITAS LAHAN PERTANIAN Good soil structure Soil structure affects water and air movement through soil, soil temperature as well as how easily soil can be cultivated. When the structure is good water infiltration into the soil is fast and soil granules are durable (spherical in shape). Good soil absorbs enough water for plants’ growth but extra water moves quickly away in large pores. In dry conditions capillary water movement from deeper layers to root zone is important. Characteristics for well structured soil are also high biological activity, good root growth and high enough bearing capacity. Indicators of damaged soil structure are e.g. compacted layers, surface crusting, poor root growth, or plow pans. Diunduhdari: …… 24/12/2012

  28. KUALITAS LAHAN PERTANIAN DEEP SOIL Deep soil testing is described as taking soil samples down to depths of 36 inches or more. This usually involves three samples: 0-8”, 8-24, and 24-36”. The 0-8 and 36” profile sample must be done to receive cost share assistance. Pounds of Nitrogen from each sample are determined and from that an estimate can be made on Nitrogen available in the root zone. Sampling needs vary but one test per 40 acres is a good rule to follow. Based on cropping history and the next year’s crop choice, a recommendation is given on fertilizer application. Diunduhdari: … … 24/12/2012

  29. TANAH: SUATU SISTEM • Parent material, such as bedrock, is weathered to begin process of soil formation. • Parent material = material geologisdasardisuatulokasi • Bedrock = masabatuanpadat yang kontinyupenyusunkerakbumi • Weathering = proses yang menghancurkanbatuan Diunduhdari: …… 20/12/2012 Typical layers found in a soil profile. (Source: Physical Most soils have a distinct profile or sequence of horizontal layers. Generally, these horizons result from the processes of chemical weathering, eluviation, illuviation, and organic decomposition. Up to five layers can be present in a typical soil: O, A, B, C, and R horizons Diunduhdari:…… 21/12/2012

  30. "Karakterisiklahan" merupakanatributlahan yang dapatdiukurataudiestimasi. Misalnya: Kemiringan, Curahhujan, Teksturtanah, Kapasitasair tersedia, Biomasavegetasi, dll.

  31. Strukturtanah • Resembles cookie crumbs and is usually less than 0.5 cm in diameter. • Commonly found in surface horizons where roots have been growing.

  32. STRUKTUR KUBUS: Blocky Structure • Irregular blocks that are usually 1.5 - 5.0 cm in diameter. • Can be subangular or angular blocky.$File/gl167_profile.jpg

  33. StrukturPrismatik • Vertical columns of soil that might be a number of cm long. • Usually found in lower horizons.

  34. StrukturPipih • Thin, flat plates of soil that lie horizontally. • Usually found in compacted soil.