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  1. A closer look at: Retrieval

  2. Yesterday and today you learned about… • Stage 1: Encoding. • Stage 2: Storage. • Once information is encoded and stored successfully, you must be able to get it back out, or retrieve it!

  3. The two retrieval tasks • Recall: • Recognition: • Harry Bahrick study (1975):

  4. RelearningTime as a Measure of Retention • In the late 1800s, Hermann Ebbinghaus studied another measure of memory functioning: how much time does it take to relearn and regain mastery of material? • He studied the memorization of nonsense syllables (THB YOX KVU EHM) so that depth of processing or prelearning would not be a factor.

  5. “Every memory we have is held in a web of associations.”

  6. Retrieval cues • Imagine a spider suspended in the middle of her web, held up by the many strands extending outward from her in all directions to different points. If you were to trace a pathway to the spider, you would first need to create a path from one of these anchor points and then follow the strand down into the web. • Retrieval cues:

  7. Priming • The activation of particular associations in memory, which usually aids retrieval; “memoryless memory”

  8. Context-Dependent Memory • Part of the web of associations of a memory is the context. What else was going on at the time we formed the memory? Words learned underwater are better retrieved underwater.

  9. Déjà vu = “already seen” • Sometimes being in a context similar to one we’ve been in before may trigger déjà vu.

  10. State-Dependent Memory • Our memories are not just linked to the external context in which we learned them.

  11. The end!