Machine Learning Unit 5, Introduction to Artificial Intelligence, Stanford online course

Machine Learning Unit 5, Introduction to Artificial Intelligence, Stanford online course

Télécharger la présentation

Machine Learning Unit 5, Introduction to Artificial Intelligence, Stanford online course

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

1. Machine LearningUnit 5,Introduction to Artificial Intelligence, Stanford online course Made by: Maor Levy, Temple University 2012

2. Machine Learning • Up until now: how to reason in a give model • Machine learning: how to acquire a model on the basis of data / experience • Learning parameters (e.g. probabilities) • Learning structure (e.g. BN graphs) • Learning hidden concepts (e.g. clustering)

3. Machine Learning Lingo

4. Occam’s Razor • Commonly attributed to William of Ockham (1290-1349). This was formulated about fifteen hundred years after Epicurus. • In sharp contrast to the principle of multiple explanations, it states: Entities should not be multiplied beyond necessity. • Commonly explained as: when have choices, choose the simplest theory. • Bertrand Russell: “It is vain to do with more what can be done with fewer.”

5. Supervised Machine Learning Given a training set: (x1, y1), (x2, y2), (x3, y3), …(xn, yn) Where each yiwas generated by an unknown y = f (x), Discover a function h that approximates the true function f.

6. Classification Example: Spam Filter • Input: x = email • Output: y = “spam” or “ham” • Setup: • Get a large collection of example emails, each labeled “spam” or “ham” • Note: someone has to hand label all this data! • Want to learn to predict labels of new, future emails • Features: The attributes used to make the ham / spam decision • Words: FREE! • Text Patterns: \$dd, CAPS • Non-text: SenderInContacts • … Dear Sir. First, I must solicit your confidence in this transaction, this is by virture of its nature as being utterly confidencial and top secret. … TO BE REMOVED FROM FUTURE MAILINGS, SIMPLY REPLY TO THIS MESSAGE AND PUT "REMOVE" IN THE SUBJECT. 99 MILLION EMAIL ADDRESSES FOR ONLY \$99 Ok, I know this is blatantly OT but I'm beginning to go insane. Had an old Dell Dimension XPS sitting in the corner and decided to put it to use, I know it was working pre being stuck in the corner, but when I plugged it in, hit the power nothing happened.

7. A Spam Filter • Naïve Bayes spam filter • Data: • Collection of emails, labeled spam or ham • Note: someone has to hand label all this data! • Split into training, held-out, test sets • Classifiers • Learn on the training set • (Tune it on a held-out set) • Test it on new emails Dear Sir. First, I must solicit your confidence in this transaction, this is by virture of its nature as being utterly confidencial and top secret. … TO BE REMOVED FROM FUTURE MAILINGS, SIMPLY REPLY TO THIS MESSAGE AND PUT "REMOVE" IN THE SUBJECT. 99 MILLION EMAIL ADDRESSES FOR ONLY \$99 Ok, Iknow this is blatantly OT but I'm beginning to go insane. Had an old Dell Dimension XPS sitting in the corner and decided to put it to use, I know it was working pre being stuck in the corner, but when I plugged it in, hit the power nothing happened.

8. Example HAM • PLAY SPORTS TODAY • WENT PLAY SPORTS • SECRET SPORTS EVENT • SPORT IS TODAY • SPORT COSTS MONEY SPAM • OFFER IS SECRET • CLICK SECRET LINK • SECRET SPORTS LINK • Questions: • Size of Vocabulary? • P(SPAM) = 13 words 3/8

9. Maximum Likelihood • S SS H HHHHH p(S) = • 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 5

10. HAM • PLAY SPORTS TODAY • WENT PLAY SPORTS • SECRET SPORTS EVENT • SPORT IS TODAY • SPORT COSTS MONEY SPAM • OFFER IS SECRET • CLICK SECRET LINK • SECRET SPORTS LINK • Questions: • P(“SECRET” | SPAM) = • P(“SECRET” | HAM) = 1/3 1/15

11. Naïve Bayes for Text • Bag-of-Words Naïve Bayes: • Predict unknown class label (spam vs. ham) • Assume evidence features (e.g. the words) are independent • Generative model • Tied distributions and bag-of-words • Usually, each variable gets its own conditional probability distribution P(F|Y) • In a bag-of-words model • Each position is identically distributed • All positions share the same conditional probs P(W|C) • Why make this assumption? Word at position i, not ith word in the dictionary!

12. General Naïve Bayes • General probabilistic model: • General naive Bayes model: • We only specify how each feature depends on the class • Total number of parameters is linear in n |Y| x |F|n parameters Y F1 F2 Fn n x |F| x |Y| parameters |Y| parameters

13. HAM • PLAY SPORTS TODAY • WENT PLAY SPORTS • SECRET SPORTS EVENT • SPORT IS TODAY • SPORT COSTS MONEY SPAM • OFFER IS SECRET • CLICK SECRET LINK • SECRET SPORTS LINK • Questions: • MESSAGE M = “SPORTS” • P(SPAM | M) = 3/18 Applying Bayes’ Rule

14. HAM • PLAY SPORTS TODAY • WENT PLAY SPORTS • SECRET SPORTS EVENT • SPORT IS TODAY • SPORT COSTS MONEY SPAM • OFFER IS SECRET • CLICK SECRET LINK • SECRET SPORTS LINK • Questions: • MESSAGE M = “SECRET IS SECRET” • P(SPAM | M) = 25/26 Applying Bayes’ Rule

15. HAM • PLAY SPORTS TODAY • WENT PLAY SPORTS • SECRET SPORTS EVENT • SPORT IS TODAY • SPORT COSTS MONEY SPAM • OFFER IS SECRET • CLICK SECRET LINK • SECRET SPORTS LINK • Questions: • MESSAGE M = “TODAY IS SECRET” • P(SPAM | M) = 0 Applying Bayes’ Rule

16. Example: Spam Filtering • Model: • What are the parameters? • Where do these tables come from? ham : 0.66 spam: 0.33 the : 0.0156 to : 0.0153 and : 0.0115 of : 0.0095 you : 0.0093 a : 0.0086 with: 0.0080 from: 0.0075 ... the : 0.0210 to : 0.0133 of : 0.0119 2002: 0.0110 with: 0.0108 from: 0.0107 and : 0.0105 a : 0.0100 ... Counts from examples!

17. Example: Overfitting • Posteriors determined by relative probabilities (odds ratios): south-west : inf nation : inf morally : inf nicely : inf extent : inf seriously : inf ... screens : inf minute : inf guaranteed : inf \$205.00 : inf delivery : inf signature : inf ... What went wrong here?

18. Generalization and Overfitting • Raw counts will overfitthe training data! • Unlikely that every occurrence of “minute” is 100% spam • Unlikely that every occurrence of “seriously” is 100% ham • What about all the words that don’t occur in the training set at all? 0/0? • In general, we can’t go around giving unseen events zero probability • At the extreme, imagine using the entire email as the only feature • Would get the training data perfect (if deterministic labeling) • Would not generalize at all • Just making the bag-of-words assumption gives us some generalization, but isn’t enough • To generalize better: we need to smoothor regularizethe estimates

19. Estimation: Smoothing r g g • Maximum likelihood estimates: • Problems with maximum likelihood estimates: • If I flip a coin once, and it’s heads, what’s the estimate for P(heads)? • What if I flip 10 times with 8 heads? • What if I flip 10M times with 8M heads? • Basic idea: • We have some prior expectation about parameters (here, the probability of heads) • Given little evidence, we should skew towards our prior • Given a lot of evidence, we should listen to the data

20. Estimation: Laplace Smoothing • Laplace’s estimate (extended): • Pretend you saw every outcome k extra times • c (x) is the number of occurrences of this value of the variable x. • |x| is the number of values that the variable x can take on. • k is a smoothing parameter. • N is the total number of occurrences of x (the variable, not the value) in the sample size. • What’s Laplace with k = 0? • k is the strength of the prior • Laplace for conditionals: • Smooth each condition independently:

21. Estimation: Linear Interpolation • In practice, Laplace often performs poorly for P(X|Y): • When |X| is very large • When |Y| is very large • Another option: linear interpolation • Also get P(X) from the data • Make sure the estimate of P(X|Y) isn’t too different from P(X) • What if is 0? 1?

22. Real NB: Smoothing • For real classification problems, smoothing is critical • New odds ratios: helvetica : 11.4 seems : 10.8 group : 10.2 ago : 8.4 areas : 8.3 ... verdana : 28.8 Credit : 28.4 ORDER : 27.2 <FONT> : 26.9 money : 26.5 ... Do these make more sense?

23. Tuning on Held-Out Data • Now we’ve got two kinds of unknowns • Parameters: the probabilities P(Y|X), P(Y) • Hyperparameters, like the amount of smoothing to do: k • How to learn? • Learn parameters from training data • Must tune hyperparameters on different data • Why? • For each value of the hyperparameters, train and test on the held-out (validation)data • Choose the best value and do a final test on the test data

24. How to Learn Training Data • Data: labeled instances, e.g. emails marked spam/ham • Training set • Held out (validation) set • Test set • Features: attribute-value pairs which characterize each x • Experimentation cycle • Learn parameters (e.g. model probabilities) on training set • Tune hyperparameters on held-out set • Compute accuracy on test set • Very important: never “peek” at the test set! • Evaluation • Accuracy: fraction of instances predicted correctly • Overfitting and generalization • Want a classifier which does well on test data • Overfitting: fitting the training data very closely, but not generalizing well to test data Held-Out Data Test Data

25. What to Do About Errors? • Need more features– words aren’t enough! • Have you emailed the sender before? • Have 1K other people just gotten the same email? • Is the sending information consistent? • Is the email in ALL CAPS? • Do inline URLs point where they say they point? • Does the email address you by (your) name? • Can add these information sources as new variables in the Naïve Bayes model

26. A Digit Recognizer • Input: x = pixel grids • Output: y = a digit 0-9

27. Example: Digit Recognition • Input: x = images (pixel grids) • Output: y = a digit 0-9 • Setup: • Get a large collection of example images, each labeled with a digit • Note: someone has to hand label all this data! • Want to learn to predict labels of new, future digit images • Features: The attributes used to make the digit decision • Pixels: (6,8)=ON • Shape Patterns: NumComponents, AspectRatio, NumLoops • … 0 1 2 1 ??

28. Naïve Bayes for Digits • Simple version: • One feature Fij for each grid position <i,j> • Boolean features • Each input maps to a feature vector, e.g. • Here: lots of features, each is binary valued • Naïve Bayes model:

29. Learning Model Parameters

30. Problem: Overfitting 2 wins!!

31. Regression • Start with very simple example • Linear regression • What you learned in high school math • From a new perspective • Linear model • y = m x + b • hw(x) = y = w1x + w0 • Find best values for parameters • “maximize goodness of fit” • “maximize probability” or “minimize loss”

32. Regression: Minimizing Loss • Assume true function f is given byy = f (x) = m x + b + noisewhere noise is normally distributed • Then most probable values of parametersfound by minimizing squared-error loss:Loss(hw) = Σj(yj – hw(xj))2

33. Regression: Minimizing Loss

34. Regression: Minimizing Loss Linear algebra givesan exact solution to the minimization problem y = w1x + w0

35. Linear Algebra Solution

36. Don’t Always Trust Linear Models

37. Regression by Gradient Descent w = any point loop until convergence do: for each wi in w do: wi = wi – α ∂ Loss(w) ∂ wi

38. Multivariate Regression • You learned this in math class too • hw(x) = w ∙ x = w xT = Σiwi xi • The most probable set of weights, w*(minimizing squared error): • w* = (XT X)-1XT y

39. Overfitting • To avoid overfitting, don’t just minimize loss • Maximize probability, including prior over w • Can be stated as minimization: • Cost(h) = EmpiricalLoss(h) + λ Complexity(h) • For linear models, consider • Complexity(hw) = Lq(w) = ∑i | wi|q • L1regularization minimizes sum of abs. values • L2regularization minimizes sum of squares

40. Regularization and Sparsity • Cost(h) = EmpiricalLoss(h) + λ Complexity(h) L1regularization L2regularization

41. Perceptron Algorithm • Start with random w0, w1 • Pick training example <x,y> • Update (α is learning rate) • w1 w1+α(y-f(x))x • w0 w0+α(y-f(x)) • Converges to linear separator (if exists) • Picks “a” linear separator (a good one?)

42. What Linear Separator to Pick? Maximizes the “margin” - Support Vector Machines

43. Non-Separable Data? X2 • Not linearly separable for x1, x2 • What if we add a feature? • x3= x12+x22 • See: “Kernel Trick” - X1 - X3

44. Nonparametric Models • If the process of learning good values for parameters is prone to overfitting,can we do without parameters?

45. Nearest-Neighbor Classification • Nearest neighbor for digits: • Take new image • Compare to all training images • Assign based on closest example • Encoding: image is vector of intensities: • What’s the similarity function? • Dot product of two images vectors? • Usually normalize vectors so ||x|| = 1 • min = 0 (when?), max = 1 (when?)

46. Earthquakes and Explosions Using logistic regression (similar to linear regression) to do linear classification

47. K=1 Nearest Neighbors Using nearest neighbors to do classification