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Atomic Theories- Part I

Atomic Theories- Part I

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Atomic Theories- Part I

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  1. Atomic Theories- Part I Chemistry Mrs. Coyle

  2. A) Early Atomic Theories

  3. Atom • The word atom comes from the Greek and means “indivisible”.

  4. Atom • The smallest particle in an element that retains its identity in a chemical reaction.

  5. Democritus – Greek philosopher 4th Century BC • First to come up with “atom” • Matter is composed of tiny particles called atoms • These atoms are invisible, indestructible fundamental units of matter

  6. Democritus’s ideas were opposed by Aristotle and Plato.

  7. Antoine Lavoisier (France 1782) • Law of Conservation of Mass • In a chemical reaction mass is conserved.

  8. Joseph Proust (France 1799) • Law of Definite Proportions: The elements that comprise a compound are always in a certain proportion by mass.

  9. John Dalton (England 1766-1844) • School teacher • Studied the ratios in which elements combine in chemical reactions • Formulated first modern Atomic Theory

  10. Dalton’s Atomic Theory • All matter is made of atoms. • Atoms of the same element are identical. The atoms of any one element are different from those of any other element.

  11. Dalton’s Atomic Theory • Atoms of different elements can chemically combine in simple whole number ratios to form compounds. Example: CO2

  12. Dalton’s Atomic Theory • Chemical reactions occur when atoms are rearranged. Chemical reactions do not change atoms of one element to another.

  13. Dalton’s Atomic Model

  14. Atomic Theory • Much of Dalton’s theory still holds today • However, we now know that atoms are not indivisible

  15. Scanning Tunneling Microscope

  16. Scanning Tunneling Microscope

  17. Iron Atom Arrangement - STM

  18. The Size of the Atom • If you placed 100,000,000 Cu atoms side by side they would form a line only 1 cm long. • Radius of most atoms is about 5x10-11 to 2x10-10m.

  19. B) The Discovery of the Electron and the Proton

  20. History • Electron means “amber” in Greek • Properties discovered by the Greek Thales of Miletos 600 BC. Rubbed the mineral amber with cat fur and attracted feathers.

  21. Benjamin Franklin (America 1740’s) • Law of conservation of charge. • Saw electricity as a flowing fluid and called the flow direction positive.

  22. Law of Charges • Like charges repel • Opposite charges attract

  23. J(oseph) J(ohn) Thomson (England 1897) • He discovered the electron while experimenting with cathode rays.

  24. Cathode Ray

  25. Deflection of Cathode Ray

  26. Cathode Ray Tube

  27. JJ Thomson with the CRT

  28. Thomson’s Discovery • He determined that the cathode ray was made of negatively charged particles – electrons.

  29. Cathode Rays • Thomson also was able to estimate that the mass of the electron was equal to about 1/1840 of the mass of a hydrogen atom. • His discovery of the electron won the Nobel Prize in 1906.

  30. Cathode Rays • Thompson showed that the production of the cathode ray was not dependent on the type of gas in the tube, or the type of metal used for the electrodes. • He concluded that these particles were part of every atom.

  31. Charge of the Electron • Charge of Electron 1.6 x 10-19 C (coulombs) • Mass of Electron 9.11 x 10-28 g

  32. Atoms have no net electric charge.

  33. Ions • Positively charge atom (cation) • Atom lost electrons. • Negatively charged atom (anion) • Object gained electrons.

  34. Electron is the basic quantity of charge. • Electric charges always exist in whole number multiples of a single basic unit, the electron.

  35. A particle with a positive charge must be present in the atom to balance each negatively charge electron.

  36. Plum Pudding Model (Thomson)

  37. Application of the CRT

  38. Why is watching television potentially unsafe?

  39. The Discovery of the Proton • Discovered by Eugen Goldstein (German) in 1886. • He observed “Canal rays” and found that they are composed of positive particles – protons.

  40. Canal Rays passed through holes, or channels, in the reverse direction as the cathode ray.  Canal Rays

  41. Canal Rays

  42. c) Discovery of the Nucleus

  43. Ernest Rutherford (Born in New Zealand 1871-1937) • University of Manchester, England • Tested Thomson’s theory of atomic structure with the “gold foil” experiment in 1910.

  44. Gold Foil Experiment • Bombarded thin gold foil with a beam of ‘alpha’ particles. • If the positive charge was evenly spread out, the beam should have easily passed through.

  45. Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment Rutherford and coworkers aimed a beam of alpha particles at a sheet of gold foil surrounded by a florescent screen.

  46. Rutherford • Expected • Found

  47. Rutherford's Experiment Most particles passed through with no deflection, while some were highly deflected Rutherford concluded that most particles passed through because the atom is mostly empty space.

  48. Rutherford’s Conclusions • All of the positive charge, and most of the mass of an atom are concentrated in a small core, called the nucleus.

  49. Size of Nucleus Compared to the Atom is as a Ball Compares to a Football Field.