Vocabulary and Deep Conceptual KnowledgePrevious Objectives • To apply an instructional activity (Concept of Definition) to scaffold students to “really know a word” and how to define it in student-friendly terms within a certain context with details about its characteristics, examples, and non-examples. • To apply an instructional activity (Vocab Videos) that deepens word knowledge of Tier 2 and Tier 3 words and increases students’ engagement with that word in personal and meaningful ways
Critical Reading & Questioning Strategies: Part 1 Today’s Objectives • To apply an instructional method (QAR) for helping students to analyze, understand, and respond to content-area questions – you’ll need your Vocabulary handouts with “challenging texts” • To apply an instructional method (RAFT) that deepens comprehension and broadens learning by appreciating multiple frames of mind
THINKING ABOUT THE REST OF THE SEMESTER ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY – April 10 & 12 April 3, then April 19 and 24 April 5 March 20 &22 March 27 & 29
Instructional Strategies to Foster Critical Reading & Questioning (Buehl) • Reading and Thinking Critically – Same/different? • 133: Question-Answer Relationships (QAR) • 137: Questioning the Author (QtA) What is the author’s message; Whose perspective does it represent and whose is missing? > Extend to examine power relationships & take action to work toward equity and social justice • 157: Self-Questioning Taxonomy (Creating, evaluating, analyzing, applying, understanding, remembering) • MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES – How foster engagement and deep learning? • 73: Different Perspectives for Reading (take a role: assume needs, concerns, read & react to text, summarize with a position statement) • 144: RAFT (Role/Audience/Format/Topic)
Agree or Disagree Writing does not help students understand math. Creative writing is mostly for fun. Asking questions while reading distracts from comprehension of a text. Younger students can't really understand multiple perspectives. It's unfair to ask students questions that they can not find the answers to in the text.
Critical Thinking and Critical Literacy Critical thinking is the ability to analyze and question from a variety of perspectives. Critical literacy is ability to read texts in an active, reflective manner in order to better understand power, inequality, and injustice in human relationships.
Questioning • Questioning has been used by teachers as a way to guide and monitor student learning • Questioning is effective for improving comprehension because it… • gives the reader a purpose for reading • requires the reader to focus their attention on what must be learned • helps develop active thinking while reading • helps monitor comprehension • helps review content • relates what is learned to what is already known
Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) • Taffy Rafael observed students and the strategies they use while they are answering questions and found that many students either relied only on their background knowledge or only on the text. • Rafael developed the QAR (Question-Answer Relationship) to help students with the basic types of questions that can be taken away from a text, and where to find the answers to these questions. The questions fall into two categories – in the text and in your head. Raphael, T. "Question-answering Strategies for Children." The Reading Teacher, 1982 36(2), pp.186-191.
Question-Answer Relationship(QAR) In the text 1. Right There 2. Think and Search In your head • Author and You • On My Own
Question-Answer Relationships Albert was afraid that Susan would beat him in the tennis match. The night before the match, Albert broke both of Susan’s racquets. • RIGHT THERE: When did Albert break both of Susan’s racquets? [In the text] • THINK & SEARCH: Why did Albert break both of Susan’s racquets? [In your head] • AUTHOR AND YOU: Why was Albert afraid that Susan would beat him? [In your head] • ON YOUR OWN: What feelings or actions may competition sometimes foster among high school students? Cite examples from your own experiences. In The Text In Your Head
In the Text • Right There – Requires going back to the text to find the appropriate information to answer the question. • Can also be called literal questions (since the answer can be found somewhere in the text) • “According to the passage…?” • “How many…?” • “Who/Where/What is…?”
In the Text 2. Think and Search – The answer is in the text, but requires the reader to search through multiple parts of the text to find the answer. • Think about how the information from the text fits together • “What is the main idea of the passage?” • “What caused…?” • “Compare/Contrast…”
In Your Head 3. Author and You – Requires using ideas and information that are not stated directly in the text. • Need to think about what you have learned from the text and formulate your own ideas/opinions • “The author implies…” • “The speaker’s attitude…” • “Based on what the character’s actions, what do you think…?”
In Your Head 4. On My Own – Can be answered using your background knowledge on a text • You must rely solely on your own experiences and interpretations to answer the question • Not found often on tests because they do not require referencing the passage • “In your opinion…” • “Based on your experience…” • “Think about someone/something you know…”
Why is this valuable to teach our students? • Students often assume that answers to questions from a text must be in the text, so they spend too much time looking through the text for the answers that are not “right there.” • Initially, students see that both background knowledge and the text are useful in answering questions. • Students develop a tool for understanding the different types of questions and how to approach the text or their head for an answer to these questions. • It helps students search for key words and phrases to locate necessary information. • Eventually, students learn how to generate their own high level (or low-level) questions to deepen their understanding or review new ideas
How to Teach QAR • Explain the Strategy • Model the strategy (choose a text that will allow you to demonstrate very clearly) • Guided practice applying the strategy • Practice (independently/small groups) • Reflect
Example Jeff has lived in Martinsville his entire life. But tomorrow, Jeff and his family would be moving 200 miles away to Petersburg. Jeff hated the idea of having to move. He would be leaving behind his best friend, Rick, the baseball team he had played on for the last two years, and the big oak tree in his backyard, where he liked to sit and think. And to make matters worse, he was moving on his birthday! Jeff would be thirteen tomorrow. He was going to be a teenager! He wanted to spend the day with his friends, not watching his house being packed up and put on a truck. Jeff thought that moving was a horrible way to spend his birthday. What about a party? What about spending the day with his friends? What about what he wanted? But that was just the problem. No one ever asked Jeff what he wanted.
Now, your turn… • Please use your content area texts to come up with at least 1 example of each of the four types of questions to share :) • (Refer to the Vocabulary Handout with five “challenging texts”)
What is a R.A.F.T.? A RAFT is a nontraditional writing activity that uses reading, writing-to-learn, and creativity in a differentiated classroom. Basically, it allows students to analyze a concept or a text from multiple perspectives, and it is an interesting way to assess a students level of comprehension.
How is a RAFT organized? Role: role of the writer (Who is writing?) Audience: the reader (Who will be reading?) Format: (What is the best way to present this in writing?) Topic: focus of writing (What topic is addressed?)
What does a RAFT look like? Elementary RAFT exploring a unit on the desert. http://www.somers.k12.ny.us/intranet/reading/desertassign.html
What does a RAFT look like? Middle School RAFT exploring The Giver by Lois Lowry. (Samples attached.)
Real examples from The Giverby Lois Lowry Role – Asher Audience – self Format – journal Topic – the world outside the community Role – reporter Audience – real world teens Format – article Topic – everyday life in the community On October 25, 2006, a student named Megan Oster and her friends were coming home from an all night Halloween party and going back to URI campus. But Halloween got scarier than it was supposed... “While I was standing there, I noticed it wasn’t raining inside the gate like it was outside it,” says Megan. Then, suddenly the gate opened. There was a little girl standing there. She didn’t have any emotion on her face… I was worried about my friend. We have been friends since I can remember. His name is Jonas. We were getting our job assignments and they skipped over him… Jonas and I made a promise… we would never leave each other… (he) brought me back to 2006 and for the first time I felt cold, snow, and pain… The best part of the day was when Jonas’ new mother and father… gave all of us a hug and a kiss. This was the thing Jonas called ‘love’ that he was trying to explain to me before. Now I know why Jonas and I will never return to the community.
Why is this valuable to our students? Engaging students in writing can be a challenge in many classrooms. The RAFT provides an opportunity for students to take control of their writing and incorporate their creativity. Students gain multiple perspectives, not only from writing a RAFT, but also from sharing RAFTs with other students. Why is this valuable to you? Correcting is enjoyable! You rarely have to read the same information twice.
Now, you try… • Use your content area RAFT chart to choose your Role, Audience, Format, and Topic. Begin planning or writing your RAFT! • OR think about your lesson plan text and generate a few ideas
Agree or Disagree Writing does not help students understand math. Creative writing is mostly for fun. Younger students can't really understand multiple perspectives. Asking questions while reading distracts from comprehension of a text. It's unfair to ask students questions that they can not find in the text. Activities like these benefit students’ critical thinking skills.
Helpful Websites Critical Thinking http://www.freeinquiry.com/critical-thinking.html http://www.readingonline.org/articles/cervetti/ (Critical Reading v. Critical Literacy) QAR http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_view.asp?id=227 (QAR student posters, lesson ideas) http://www.readinglady.com/mosaic/tools/QARQuestionAnswerRelationshipTeachingChildrenWheretoSeekAnswerstoQuestions.pdf (Sample QAR activities) http://www.tantasqua.org/Superintendent/Profdevelopment/etqar.html (QAR across the content areas) RAFT http://www.writingfix.com/WAC/RAFT.htm http://www.tantasqua.org/Superintendent/Profdevelopment/etraft.html (RAFT across the content areas) http://daretodifferentiate.wikispaces.com/R.A.F.T.+Assignments (Tons of RAFT assignments across content areas)
Helpful Websites Math http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_view.asp?id=151 (Using QAR with charts and graphs) Mesmer, H., Hutchins, E. (Sep. 2002) Using QARs with Charts and Graphs. The Reading Teacher. 56(1), 21-27. http://www.writingfix.com/WAC/Writing_Across_Curriculum_RAFTS_math.htm (RAFT prompts - math) Science http://academic.cengage.com/resource_uploads/downloads/0534553389_46559.pdf (Sample 7th grade science lesson using QAR) http://www.writingfix.com/WAC/Writing_Across_Curriculum_RAFTS_Science.htm (RAFT prompts-science)
Homework • Ning Post #8 Reflection: • Kajder, Chapter 4: Information Navigation & Critical Evaluation • Coiro (2005). Making Sense of Online Text. • Switch: Abilock (2012) NOT Coiro & Fogleman • Work on Lesson Plan – come prepared to our meeting with completed chart and specific questions – check the time you signed up for if you are unsure
Lesson Plan • Context • Objectives (align to standards/backwards design) • Opening: activate/asses prior knowledge • Engagement: Hook? Higher-level questions? • TEACH: Model with think-aloud… about processes? Vocabulary? Other challenges? • GUIDED PRACTICE: Engaging Activity • Graphic organizer to scaffold • INDEPENDENT PRACTICE: Apply/integrate • Closure (explicit and directed by you) • Assessment (monitor in class, how to set clear expectations & measure quality with a rubric)