Download
powerpoint lecture notes presentation chapter 9 learning n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 9: Learning PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 9: Learning

PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 9: Learning

18 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 9: Learning

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 9: Learning

  2. Lecture Overview • Classical Conditioning • Operant Conditioning • Cognitive-Social Learning • The Biology of Learning • Using Conditioning and Learning Principles

  3. Introductory Definitions • Learning (relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes resulting from practice or experience) • Conditioning (process of learning associations between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses)

  4. Pavlov’s Contribution Classical Conditioning:learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus (NS) becomes paired (associated) with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to elicit a conditioned response (CR) Classical Conditioning

  5. Pavlov’s Original Experiment

  6. Classical Conditioning--Key Terms • Neutral Stimulus (NS): stimulus that, before conditioning, doesn’t naturally bring about the response of interest • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): stimulus that elicits an UCR occurring without previous conditioning • Unconditioned Response (UCR): unlearned reaction to an UCS occurring without prior conditioning

  7. Classical Conditioning--Key Terms (Continued) • Conditioned Stimulus (CS): previously NS that, through repeated pairings with an UCS, now causes a CR • Conditioned Response (CR): learned reaction to a CS occurring because of previous repeated pairings with an UCS

  8. Why Study Psychology? It Helps You Understand Popular Cartoons!

  9. Classical Conditioning (Continued)

  10. Conditioned Emotional Response (CER): Watson demonstrated how emotions can be classically conditioned to a previously neutral stimulus (NS). John B. Watson Classical Conditioning (Continued)

  11. Watson and Rayner Created a Fear of Rats (a CER) in Little Albert

  12. Classical Conditioning’s Basic Principles ALL Snakes bite! • Stimulus Generalization: learned response to stimuli that are similarto the original conditioned stimuli (CS)

  13. Stimulus Discrimination: learned response to a specific stimulus, but not to other, similar stimuli Classical Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued) Now I know that some snakes are nice!

  14. Extinction: gradual weakening or suppression of a previously conditioned response (CR) • Spontaneous Recovery: reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response (CR)

  15. Classical Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued) • Higher-Order Conditioning: neutral stimulus (NS) becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) through repeated pairings with a previously conditioned stimulus (CS)

  16. Classical Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued) Higher-Order Conditioning

  17. Operant Conditioning: learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences Operant Conditioning

  18. Thorndike’s Contribution Law of Effect: the probability of an action being repeated is strengthened when followed by a pleasant or satisfying consequence Operant Conditioning (Continued)

  19. Operant Conditioning (Continued) • Skinner’s Contribution • Conducted systematic research using a Skinner box

  20. Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles • Reinforcement:strengthening a response

  21. Primary Reinforcers: normally satisfy an unlearned biological need(e.g., food) Secondary Reinforcers: learnedvalue (e.g., money, praise) Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued)

  22. chapter 9 External and internal reinforcers External reinforcers Reinforcers not inherently related to the behavior being reinforced Internal reinforcers Reinforcers inherently related to the behavior being reinforced External reinforcers may undermine internal reinforcers.

  23. Positive Reinforcement:adding (or presenting) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur (e.g., praise) Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued)

  24. Negative Reinforcement: taking away (or removing) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur (e.g., headache removed after taking an aspirin) Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued)

  25. Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued)

  26. Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles: Four Partial Schedules of Reinforcement • Fixed Ratio (FR):reinforcement occurs after a predetermined set of responses; the ratio (number or amount) is fixed 2. Variable Ratio (VR):reinforcement occurs unpredictably; the ratio (number or amount) varies

  27. Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles: Four Partial Schedules (Continued) • Fixed Interval (FI):reinforcement occurs after a predetermined time has elapsed; the interval (time) is fixed 4. Variable Interval (VI):reinforcement occurs unpredictably; the interval (time) varies

  28. Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles: Four Partial Schedules (Continued)

  29. If you want to increase the overall number of responses, which schedule of reinforcement should you choose? Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles: Four Partial Schedules (Continued)

  30. Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued) • Shaping: reinforcement is delivered for successive approximations of the desired response

  31. Punishment:weakening a response Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued)

  32. Positive Punishment:adding (or presenting) a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur (e.g., shouting) Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued)

  33. Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued) • Negative Punishment: taking away (or removing) a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur (e.g., restriction)

  34. chapter 9 Punishment The process by which a stimulus weakens or reduces the probability of the response that it follows. Primary punishers are inherently punishing. Secondary reinforcers are stimuli that have acquired punishing properties through associations with other punishers.

  35. chapter 9 Types of punishment Positive punishment When an unpleasant consequence follows a response, making the response less likely to recur. Negative punishment When an pleasant consequence is removed following a response, making the response less likely to recur.

  36. chapter 9 Your turn Your first time camping in the woods, you are bitten over 45 times by mosquitoes, resulting in lots of swollen, itchy bumps on your arms, legs, and back. You never want to go camping again. What kind of consequence did you confront on your first camping experience? 1. Positive reinforcement 2. Negative reinforcement 3. Positive punishment 4. Negative punishment

  37. chapter 9 Your turn Your first time camping in the woods, you are bitten over 45 times by mosquitoes, resulting in lots of swollen, itchy bumps on your arms, legs, and back. You never want to go camping again. What kind of consequence did you confront on your first camping experience? 1. Positive reinforcement 2. Negative reinforcement 3. Positive punishment 4. Negative punishment

  38. Judging by this woman’s expression, is she experiencing an example of increased aggression, passive aggressiveness, avoidance behavior, modeling, temporary suppression, or learned helplessness? Side Effects of Punishment

  39. Cognitive-Social Learning • Cognitive-Social Theory: emphasizes the roles of thinking and social learning in behavior

  40. Kohler’s chimps demonstrated insight learning (sudden understanding of a problem that implies the solution). Cognitive-Social Learning (Continued)

  41. Cognitive-Social Learning (Continued) • Tolman’s rats built a cognitive map (a mental image of a three-dimensional space). They also displayed latent learning (hidden learning that exists without behavioral signs).

  42. Observational Learning: learning new behaviors or information by watching others Bandura's Famous Bobo Doll study Cognitive-Social Learning (Continued)

  43. Observational Learning and Modeling • Note the increasing bicep circumference of these G.I. Joe action figures. What are the effects of this type of modeling?

  44. Cognitive-Social Learning (Continued) • Observational Learning involves four processes: • Attention • Retention • Motor Reproduction • Reinforcement

  45. The Biology of Learning: Neuroscience and Learning • When we learn something, we experience the creation of new synaptic connections and alterations in many brain structures.

  46. Classical Conditioning Taste Aversion: classically conditioned negative associations of food to illness The Biology of Learning: Evolution and Learning

  47. The Biology of Learning: Evolution and Learning (Continued) • Biological Preparedness: built-in (innate) readiness to form associations between certain stimuli and responses • Instinctive Drift: conditioned responses shift (or drift) back toward innate response pattern

  48. Using Conditioning and Learning Principles • Classical Conditioningcan be seen in: • Marketing • Prejudice • Medical Treatments • Phobias