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Traditional educational models in Europe Diversities of educational systems

Traditional educational models in Europe Diversities of educational systems

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Traditional educational models in Europe Diversities of educational systems

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  1. Traditional educational models in EuropeDiversities of educational systems Workshop: Boosting quality: International Credential Evaluation and Higher Education Quality Assessment in SSH (PHOENIX) Bishkek, 13-14 April 2006 Gunnar Vaht Estonian ENIC/NARIC

  2. Traditional general models of education • German model (Humboldt) • Anglo-Saxon model(Anglo-American) • French model (Napoleonic)

  3. German traditional model • Higher education system is binary - universities and professional higher education institutions • one long-cycle study (master-level) • research activities during initial studies • diversified secondary education

  4. Anglo-American traditional model • Academic and professional instruction is combined in the same programme (unitary higher education) • two-cycle education (undergraduate-graduate structure) • broad, general education on a high level • specialisation and research at second cycle • no diversified secondary general education

  5. French traditional model • Three-cycles or more in higher edcuation • Broad orientation in first cycle (2 first years) - DEUG • high selection criteria of students to the next cycle • high level central state regulations • Grandes écoles

  6. Differences in secondary education systems • Differences • types of institutions and programmes (general secondary, vocational, combined) • curricula (state curricula, school programmes, student choices) • subjects, content and amount • length of studies (10; 11; 12; 13 or 14 years) • central level examinations • marking system (pass grade) • FAIR RECOGNITION - based on the function of the qualification (access to higher education)

  7. Differences in higher education systems • Differences • access requirements • general secondary education; vocational qualifications, preparatory year; state examinations; Bachelor Doctor • degree structures • one-tier; two-tier; multi-tier structures • type of institutions • university-type; non-university type; combined; binary • nominal duration • credit systems/marking systems • names of degrees and other qualifications • same or similar name of degree may have different content and outcome • graduation requirements • FAIR ASSESSMENT AND RECOGNITION - based on assessment of learning outcomes

  8. Diversity of names of qualifications • Baccalaureat, Bachiller, Bakalaureus, Bachelor, Bacharel • Master, Maisteri, Maestro, Meester, Magister, Maitrise, Magistere, Mestre, Magisterexamen • Licencie, Licenciado, Licence, Lizentiat, Lisensiaatti • Kandidaat, Kandidaatti, Candidatus, Candidat, Kandidat nauk • Diplomado, Diplomirani, Diplom, Diploma di Specialista, Diploma Universitarion, Diploma de… • Laurea, Ptychio, Egyetemi oklevel, Gradue, Akademski, Doctorandus

  9. Terminology • academic (degree, education) • degree • university-type, non-university type • qualification • undergraduate-graduate-postgraduate • professional degree, professional doctorate • college, institute

  10. Recognition problems • Domination of assessment and recognition practices based on the name of degree • Bachelor, Baccalaureat, Bachiller etc are not corresponding degrees • Master, Maisteri, Maitrise, Magister are not equivalent qualifications • Misunderstanding or incorrect interpretation of levels • Bachelor-Master indicates the levels and does not mean the named degrees • undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate may have different meanings and vary in the systems