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Computer Basics and its Components

Computer Basics and its Components

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Computer Basics and its Components

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  1. Examine computer components Computer Basics and its Components Edited by A. Moore 01/2012 Information retrieved from Digital Literacy Modules and 2003 BCT Curriculum

  2. Essential Standard Computer Basics and its Components Upon completion of this objective, the learner will: • Differentiate types of computers, printers, and ports • Learn the importance of memory (RAM and ROM) • Identify and describe IPOS • Know system software and productivity programs • Identify LAN and WAN • Understand the importance of maintaining the computer system and proper printer care

  3. Benefits of Using Computers • Error-free calculations • Speed • Flexibility • Storage • Consistency and repetition

  4. What Is A Computer System? • The actual computer (monitor, CD/DVD drives) • An electronic device that receives data, processes data, stores data, and produces a result (output). • The other parts are called peripheral devices

  5. Types of Computers Supercomputer:most powerful • Used for scientific purposes • Predict hurricanes and navigate satellites (Doplar Radar) • MainMainframes/minicomputers: used by business and government to process large amounts of information Personal computers:smaller and less powerful

  6. Personal Computers Desktop computer: designed to be used on a desktop. • Notebook/Tablet computer:used on a desktop but still small enough to be portable. Laptop computer:designed to be small enough and light enough to be used on your lap.

  7. Types of Printers Dot Matrix • Gives a printed image in a pattern (matrix) of tiny ink dots. • Less expensive and not as clear Inkjet Printer • Better quality of printed document • Machine uses an ink cartridge and a printing element to print images on the paper. Laser • Best quality of printed documents • Laser beam and an ink toner cartridge are used to produce the images. • More expensive • Quick

  8. System Components Central Processing Unit (CPU):the microprocessor, the brains of the computer • Tells which switch turns on and off by the processing program that tells it what to do • Most Popular CPU: Intel • (Ex: Manager and employees). Basic Controllers: • Located on the motherboard • Controls the transfer of data from the computer to a peripheral device and vice versa. • Keyboards, mouse, monitors, and printers.

  9. The Motherboard • Motherboard: Center of all processing • Contains the CPU, ports and expansion slots • Circuit board (a thin plate or board that contains electronic components) that contains many integral components.

  10. RAM is short term memory found on the Motherboard Random Access Memory (RAM): Data and program instructions are stored temporarily When the computer is turned off or if there is loss of power, what ever is stored in RAM disappears. This memory know as the main memory and is considered volatile. Example: Admin System Components

  11. System Components (con’t.) ROM is long term memory found on the motherboard Read-Only Memory (ROM): Stores specific instructions for the computer to operate. • The instructions remain on the chip regardless if the power is turned on or off. • Memory is know as nonvolatile. • Example: user name and • password

  12. Operating System (OS):controls the entire operation of the computer The first thing we see when we turn it on The last thing we see when we turn it off Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7 Utility programs: Performs housekeeping chores Copies files from one location to another Manages the computer’s resources, file management, etc. Systems Software

  13. Graphical User Interface (GUI) • GUI (graphical user interface) – pronounced “gooey” • Allows users to communicate with programs on your computer • Use the mouse or pointer to click and drag on-screen icons to perform functions. • Graphical symbols (icons) represent files, disks, programs, and other objects.

  14. RAM or ROM? • If you wanted to save your work the SMS network so you could print later, which memory would you use? A) ROM B) RAM

  15. Hardware/Software Hardware: the tangible, physical equipment that can be seen and touched such as: • Computer Case (houses the computer components) • Monitor • Keyboard and Mouse • Speakers Software: the intangible set of instructions that tells the computer what to do • Application • System software Data:information entered into the computer to be processed • Text, numbers, sounds, and images

  16. Which best describes Graphical User Interface (GUI)? (Write the correct alphabet on your paper)A) Hardware that provides printed output from the computer. B) Graphical symbols instead of text commands to control common computer functions C) Portable magnetic storage medium for computer data that allows users to randomly access information.

  17. The answer is. . . B Graphical symbols instead of text commands to control common computer functions

  18. What is an icon? • A) Portable magnetic storage medium for computer data that allows users to randomly access information. • B) The computer's working memory, sometimes called random-accessed memory. • C) A small picture or symbol representing a computer hardware function or component. • D) A printed copy of computer output.

  19. The answer is. . . C A small picture or symbol representing a computer hardware function or component.

  20. Are you smarter than a middle school scholar? Hardware/Software Terminology •

  21. Productivity (Application) Programs • Productivity programs perform certain jobs • Allows the user to create different documents in different formats, using different programs. • Examples: • Word Processing programs • Presentation programs • Spreadsheet programs • Database programs • Desktop publishing programs • Integrated programs • Games

  22. Name the desktop publishing program used in the computer labs at Sampson Middle School. (Write it down)

  23. The answer is . . . . Microsoft Office Publisher

  24. Business Software Word Processing • Allows you to create, edit, • and print text documents • Report, flyer, memo Desktop Publishing Uses pictures and words to create documents • Newsletters • Brochures Database • Lets you set up an electronic filing systems • Enter text and numbers • File cabinet, media center Spreadsheet • Numbered Rows and Lettered Columns • Grades, calculate numbers

  25. Business Software (Con’t.) Graphics Software • Uses pictures or images to help communicate messages. Multimedia Combines text, graphics, animation, video, and audio. • Clip art: graphical images to be added to documents

  26. Integrated Software • Combine several software applications into one program. • Include: • Work Processing • Spreadsheet • Database • Desktop Publishing • Multimedia PP software • Communication • Examples: • MS OFFICE

  27. If you want to boot up your computer, which one of the following programs would you use? • Application software • System software

  28. The correct answer is: B System software

  29. Ports Serial and Parallel Ports:Connects peripheral devices to the computer; usually one serial and one parallel port on a computer. • Serial devices transmit data one bit at a time. • Flat screen TV, mouse, monitor, modem • Parallel devices transfer several bits at a time. • Joy stick • Printer

  30. Universal Serial Bus (USB):supports data transfer rates of up to 12 million bits per second. Expected to replace serial and parallel ports in the near future. Expansion Slots:electrical connections in the motherboard where a circuit board or expansion board can be inserted. Additional Memory, video cards, and sound cards. Ports

  31. Modems and Routers • A modem connection device that allows you • to connect your computer to the Internet • over a phone line. • Access point (AP) connects a wireless device to a wired network (Ex: WiFi, Wireless router)

  32. Input, Output, & Storage Devices (IPOS) Input device: hardware that allows you to communicate with your computer. Output device: hardware that allows your computer to communicate with the user Storage device: allows you to store or retrieve information

  33. Computer Input Devices • Keyboard • Mouse • Joystick • Touchpad • Touch screen • Webcam • Scanner • Microphone • Digital Cameras • Smart board

  34. More Input Devices Joystick and wheel: • Joysticks consist of a metal or plastic handle mounted on a • base that you can move in any direction to move the • pointer or other object. • Typically are used for video games. • Most have buttons that can be pushed or clicked to control input/output.

  35. Computer Output Devices • Monitor • Printer • Speakers • Headsets • Projector

  36. Hard Disk Drive:stores data inside of the computer. Magnetic platter that holds a large amount of information in a form the computer can understand. Size of Hard drive is measured in megabytes or gigabytes. USB Flash Drive: connects to the computer via a USB port. Zip Disk: capable of storing tremendous amounts of information Storage Devices

  37. Storage Devices (con’t.) • Magnetic Tape Drives: used for making system backup copies of large volumes of data. • Very slow • Can be used to replace data that may have been lost on the hard drive • Optical discs: (CDs and DVDs) use laser technology to read and write data on silver platters. • CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read-Only Memory) can store up to 800MB of data. • CD-R (record once) • CD-RW (multiple times) • DVD(Digital Versatile Disk) can be played in a regular CD or in a DVD movie player.

  38. Network: when computers are connected to other computers They can share information and sometimes hardware (printers) Local Area Networks (LAN): computers connected together in a relatively close location such as in the same building or department. The data and software for these computers are stored on a central computer called the file server. Wide Area Networks (WAN): when local area networks are expanded to include several local area networks within a city, state, region, territory, country, continent, or the world. Network • Network - group of computers are connected to share resources and exchange information. • Wide area network • (WAN) covers a large • geographic area. • Local area network • (LAN) connection of computers in a limited area (home, school, or a lab)

  39. Keep food and drinks away from the computer and keyboard. Avoid dusty locations. Use a surge protector. Keep magnets away. Do not block vents on the CPU. Avoid bright sunny locations. Do not move the computer while it is in use. Always exit programs properly. Use a virus check program on a regular basis. Proper Computer Care

  40. Keep CDs stored in a clean, cool and dry place with a protective cover. Avoid touching the back side of the CD; to avoid scratches. Avoid hot and cold locations. Make a back-up copy of your programs and files. Insert into CD ROM Drive properly; label facing up. Only write on CD’s with a CD Marking Pen on a label or the correct side of the CD. Proper CD ROM Care

  41. How to Maintain your Computer System • Start a notebook of information on your system. • Serial numbers • Vendor support telephone numbers • User IDs • Date and vendor for each equipment and software purchase. • Trouble log • Periodically review disk directories and delete unneeded files. • Make sure all plug-ins are secure at all times. • Turn off the power and disconnect the equipment form the power source before you open the inside of you computer. • Keep surrounding area dirt and dust free. • Back up files and data regularly. • Periodically defragment your hard disk. • Protect your system from computer viruses

  42. Avoid cold, hot, and dusty locations. Always use the correct ink or toner replacement. Always have the proper printer cable connected to your computer. Never pull paper out of a printer in motion. Do not turn off the printer while printing. Read the instruction manual before operating a printer. Always use the proper type of paper in your printer. Proper Care of Printers

  43. The science of designing equipment for a comfortable and safe working environment. Proper Computer Ergonomics Sit up straight and lean forward slightly from the waist. Keep your feet flat on the floor. Your body should be about a hand’s length from the front of the keyboard and centered with the keyboard. Keep your fingers on the home row keys and curved. Keep your wrists up, not touching the keyboard or desk. Focus your eyes on the book, copy or screen. Place all materials you will type on the right side of the computer and supplies on the left side. Keep any items you are not using off your desk. Occasionally rest your eyes and take short breaks. Avoid lights that cause glare on the monitor. Ergonomics

  44. Questions???