COLONIAL RULE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA SECTION 1
The New Imperialism • European industrialized nations started to view Asia and Africa as sources of raw materials and markets to sell their manufactured goods. • In the 1880s, European nations started to compete with each other for control of overseas territories. • They did so to gain raw materials, markets for their goods, and to gain political advantages over one another.
Social Darwinism • Colonization of territories in Asia and Africa was justified by Social Darwinism. • Social Darwinism is a theory that applies Darwin’s survival of the fittest to people.
European colonizers saw the natives in the places they colonized as inferior. • In what they called the “white mans burden” they saw it as their duty to share Christianity, democracy and capitalism with the people who they saw as primitive.
The Colonial Takeover of Southeast Asia • By 1900 most of Southeast Asia was under Western rule. • Great Britain founded Singapore (a major stopping point to and from China), and expanded to Burma as well.
France began by claiming Vietnam and expanded its control over Cambodia, Annam, Tonkin, and Laos. • They called their area of control the Union of French Indochina.
Colonial Regimes in Southeast Asia • Indirect rule occurred when Western powers allowed local leaders to remain in power as long as they cooperated by providing access to raw materials. • Direct rule usually occurred when local rulers resisted the colonial powers. With direct rule the colonial powers take total control of the territory.
Resistance to Colonial Rule • At first most resistance to colonization failed. • Natives who learned Western ideals actually were the first to demand their independence from colonial rule.
EMPIRE BUILDING IN AFRICA SECTION 2
West Africa • Britain annexed a colony in west Africa and called it Gold Coast. They also established a protectorate over warring groups in Nigeria. • France established French West Africa.
North Africa • After the Suez Canal was completed in 1869 connecting the Mediterranean to the Red Sea Britain saw it as a lifeline to India. • They bought Egypt’s share in the canal and made Egypt a protectorate in 1914.
Central Africa • Belgium claimed vast territories in the Congo. • France also occupied areas north of the Congo river.
East Africa • Germany and Britain both claimed territories in East Africa. • To settle disputes the Berlin Conference was held in 1884 and 1885. • Britain, Germany and Portugal all received claims to the area at the Conference. • No Africans were present at the Berlin Conference.
South Africa • The Dutch had occupied Cape Town in South Africa since the 1600s (seventeenth century). • Their descendants were called Boers, or Afrikaners. • During the Napoleonic wars the British seized these lands. • The Dutch moved North and put natives on reservations. • They often battled with the Zulu’s who remained powerful in the area led by their ruler Shaka.
South Africa • After ShakaZulu’s death the Zulu’s were defeated by the British. • Cecil Rhodes who founded diamond and gold companies, captured the Dutch area of Transvaal and renamed it Rhodesia. • In the Boer War the British defeated the Boers and establish the self-governing nation of South Africa as part of the British empire. • They allowed the remaining Boers to vote but only a few Africans were allowed to vote.
Colonial Rule in Africa • Most British colonies were run by indirect rule which let Africans keep their culture but also led to rising tribal tensions. • Most other European nations led by direct rule. • The French wanted Africans to assimilate into their culture thus eliminating native traditions.
BRITISH RULE IN INDIA SECTION 3
The Sepoy Mutiny • In the 18th century (1700s) the British East India Company became actively involved in India’s political and military affairs. • Indian soldiers called Sepoys helped protect the company’s interests.
In 1857 the Sepoysrevolted in what they called the first war of independence and what the British called the Sepoy Mutiny. • The revolt failed but it led to the British parliament taking direct control of the British East India Company.
Colonial Rule • Britain ruled India through a viceroy (governor) and a civil service staff. • They brought some benefits to India including political stability, a new school system, railroads, the telegraph, and a postal service. • However they also destroyed local industries, brought economic hardships to millions with taxation policies, and discouraged farming which created a situation where the food supply could not keep up with the population.
An Indian Nationalist Movement • In 1885 the Indian National Congress (the INC) was established. • They sought a share in the governing process but their largely Hindu goals were not popular with Muslims in India so they were not effective early on.
In 1915 Mohandas Gandhi became involved in the movement that would lead to their independence.