Acute uncomplicated Pyelonephritis • Acute pyelonephritis is a urinary tract infection that has progressed from the lower urinary tract to the upper urinary tract. • Most episodes of acute pyelonephritis are uncomplicated but hospitalization may be required. • Acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis typically occurs in healthy, young women.
Complicated Urinary Tract Infection • Significant bacteriuria which occurs in the setting of functional or anatomic abnormalities of the urinary tract or kidneys. • Conditions that define complicated UTI: • the presence of an indwelling urinary catheter or use of intermittent catheterization • incomplete emptying of the bladder with more than 100 ml of urine retained postvoiding • obstructive uropathy due to obstruction of the bladder outlet, a calculus or other causes • vesicoureteral reflux or other forms of urologic abnormalities including surgically created abnormalities • azotemia due to intrinsic renal disease • renal transplantation
Pulmonary tuberculosis • Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis • transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei, which may contain fewer than 10 bacilli • When inhaled, droplet nuclei are deposited within the terminal airspaces of the lung.
Lung Malignancy • Tumors arising from the respiratory epithelium. • It is the leading cause of cancer deaths in men and women. • Major cell types: • Adenocarcinoma • Squamous cell carcinoma • Small cell carcinoma • Large cell carcinoma