Death Star Andrew Cawman Alexis Pullia Joshua Matthews Jessica Thornsberry
Dante’s Inferno Written in the 14th Century by Dante Alighieri. Part of a larger work: The Divine Comedy. The treacherous belong in the lowest depths of hell.
Betrayal • An act of disloyalty that that violates the trust of an individual, group, or organization. • Motivated by ambition, greed, or lust. • Often involves lies, deception, and infidelity.
Accidental Betrayal • Might not be considered “treachery”. • Based off perspective and personal feelings • Examples • An employ who is laid off by his or her company. • Spreading knowledge unknowingly. • Seeking professional help for a health or drug problem.
Family and Workplace Treachery against family members and friends. Treachery against coworkers.
Level of Severity • The severity of the negative effects depends upon the amount entrusted in the individual, group or organization. • Acquaintances vs. a loved one.
Short Term Effects Pain and humiliation Abandonment Rejection Loneliness
Long Term Effects Inability to trust Anger and rage Resentment Sullenness Vengeance
It is an evil act • Damaging to a person’s psyche • The damage can be permanent! • Do not do it! The Dark Side Betrayal is one of the many sides of the Darkside of communication.
Manipulation Negotiate, control, influence (something or someone), clever, skillfully, devious, unfair manner
Manipulation • Partners and friends of manipulators do not know they are being manipulated. • Manipulators do not know they are manipulating. • Manipulators are self-serving and aggressive. • Insecurity • Compensate with strong self confidence • Conceal aggressive intentions
Manipulation • Aggressive intentions • Manipulation tactics • Turning two people against each other • Verbal/nonverbal • Try to justify behavior • Anger, name calling, shouting, bullying, pouting • Lying, intimidating, fear, ignoring
Manipulation • Is the relationship worth it? • How to handle encounters • Recognize encounters
Lie Leakage • Knowledge from class • Chapters one and six. • Why lie leakage? • Duality of the message • Previous life and work experience
Research • Zuckerman Study • Attempted Control • Arousal • Felt Emotion • Cognitive Fear
Research Cont. • Function of Emotional Intensity (High Steaks) • Poker • Police Example
Research Cont. Baseline Adjustments Unique Communication Style
Other areas of interest within lie leakage… • Deception Detection • Percentage of accuracy at detecting lies/truths.
Leakage Varies The Lie (Convoluted Nature) The emotional state of the liar. The skill of the liar.
Relational Aggression The dark side of indirect aggression.
What is the difference between indirect and relational aggression? • Relational aggression is encompassed by indirect aggression, but it can be differentiated. • Passive aggression is an example of indirect aggression. • Intentionally withholding information about a meeting in hopes that someone will miss it. • Relational aggression usually involves the exploitation of a relationship. • Via manipulation and betrayal. • It is intended to harm the social status and self esteem of another.
“Female Aggression” • Rosalind Wiseman • Queen Bees and Wannabees • “Mean Girls” • Is it fair? • Of the six research articles I have studied, the only instances in which females have shown more relational aggression than boys were in pre-adolescents and adolescents aged 11-16.
Indirect vs. Direct Aggression Direct aggression involves physical and verbal acts intended to threaten or harm another. Males tend to demonstrate more amounts of direct aggression than females. While relational aggression is sometimes deemed “female aggression”, research into whether or not females display more relational aggression than men are inconclusive.
Gender Differences. • Men and women are not biologically predetermined to choose one form of aggression over another. • Girls are told from a young age, “That is not how young ladies behave.” • Men are expected to be overly direct, “Be a man!” • They are more likely to be the perpetrators and victims of direct aggression.
Nonverbal Communication and Relational Aggression In class we learned that nonverbal communication can send a stronger message than verbal communication. Relationally aggressive acts depend heavily on nonverbal forms of aggression such as ignoring and exclusion.
Research Study All participants were female. All could recall a relationally aggressive event. Gossip and rumors caused 49 percent of the aggressive events while ignoring and exclusion caused 29 percent. The most common coping mechanism was to seek social support.
Research Study Cont. All of the young girls reported that the event brought them closer to their ‘friend’. Is relational aggression a normal part of adult development? How much relational aggression aggression is healthy development, and when does it become psychologically damaging? Are these young girls placing the importance of relationships above their psychological well-being?
Key Points Biology does not predetermine the form of aggression you choose. Research has not yet determined than females display more relational aggression than men. Men have been shown to be more physically aggressive than women, and are both more often the victims and perpetrators. Relational aggression relies heavily on nonverbal communication.
References (2013) Emotional wellness matters. Manipulation in relationships-And how to deal with it. Retrieved from http://lifeesteem.org/ wellness/ wellness_ manipulation.html Basow, S. A. (2007). Perceptions of relational and physical aggression among college students: Effects of fender of perpetrator, target, and perceiver. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 3, 85-95. Burgoon, J. K. & Levine, T. R. (2010). Advances in deception detection. In S. W. Smith & S. R.Wilson (Eds.), New directions in interpersonal communication research (pp. 201-220). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Frank, M. G., Hurley, C. M., O'Sullivan, M., & Tiwana, J. (2009). Police lie detection accuracy: The effect of lie scenario. Law and Human Behavior, 33(6), 530-538.doi: 10.1007/s 10979-008-9 166-4 Feeley, T. H., deTurck, M. A., & Young, M. J. (1995). Baseline familiarity in lie detection. Communication Research Reports, 12(2), 160-169.doi: 10.1080/08824099509362052 Fitness, J. (2001). Betrayal, rejection, revenge, and forgiveness: an interpersonal script approach. Interpersonal rejection. (pp. 73-103). New York: Oxford University Press Jones, K., (2008). Emotional wellness matters. Emotional manipulation, 15(3),Retrieved from http://www.kimjonescounseling.com/ewm-jf08/index.htm
References Malekar, E. (2010). Why do people betray? Hindustan Times. Retrieved from: http://www.hindustantimes.com/News-Feed/Views/Why-do-people-betray/Article1-567916.aspx "Manipulate." Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, 2013. Web. 1 Nov. 2013.Dictionary.com (n.d.). Manipulation. Retrieved November 1, 2013, from<http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/manipulate?s=t>. Raffa, G. P. (2007). Danteworlds: A reader’s guide to the inferno. Chicago, IL. University of Chicago Press. Reina, D. S. Reina, M. L. (1999). Trust and betrayal in the workplace: Building effective relationships in your organization. San Francisco, CA. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc Remillard, A. M., Lamb, S. (2005). Adolescent girls’ coping with relational aggression. Sex Roles, 53, 221-229. DOI: 10.1007/s11199-005-5680-8 Richardson, D. S. (2005). The myth of female passivity: Thirty years of revelations about female aggression. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29, 238-247.
References Salmivalli, C., Kaukiainen, A. (2004). “Female aggression” revisited: Variable- and person-centered approaches to studying gender differences in different types of aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 30, 158-163. Simon, G., (2013). Dealing with manipulative people. Manipulation tactics: A closer look. Retrieved from http://www.manipulative-people.com/ manipulation-tactics-a-closer-look/ Sio, H. (1993). Betrayal. BOMB. No. 45, 58-60. Retrieved from: http:// www.jstor.org.ezproxy.uky.edu/stable/pdfplus/40424699.pdf? acceptTC=true&acceptTC=true&jpdConfirm=true Vail, K. (2002). Relational aggression in girls. American School Board Journal, 189, 7-14. Zuckerman, M., DePaulo B. M., & Rosenthal R. (1981). Verbal and nonverbal communication of deception. In Berkowitz L. (Eds.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 1-60). New York, NY: Academic Press.