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Minority Engineers and Inventors

Minority Engineers and Inventors

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Minority Engineers and Inventors

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  1. Minority Engineers and Inventors

  2. Juan De la Cierva (Sept. 21, 1895 – Dec. 9, 1936) • Spanish Civil Engineer • Known for his invention of the Autogyro • His invention was later utilized in the development of the helicopter

  3. Mario Molina (March 9, 1943 – Present) • Holds a doctoral degree in Chemistry • Awarded the Nobel Price in 1995 for Chemistry • Awarded for his earlier work his work on explaining the role of CFC’s and the depletion of the ozone layer • First and only Mexican to receive the Nobel Prize for Chemistry

  4. Ellen Ochoa (May 10, 1959 – Present) • May 10, 1958 - Present • Doctorate in Electrical Engineering • First U.S. Hispanic women in space • Spent 40d 19h 37m in space • Co-inventor on three patents • Optical inspection system • Optical object recognition method • Method for removing noise from images

  5. Luis Walter Alvarez (June 13, 1911 – Sept. 1, 1988) • Doctorate of Physics • Worked on the Manhattan Project • Received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1968 • Invented the synchrotron • Invented a system to help planes land safely in low visibility conditions • With his son, proposed the asteroid-impact theory which explains the extinction of the dinosaurs • Inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1978

  6. Severo Ochoa (Sept. 24, 1905 – Nov. 1, 1993) • Spanish-American Biologist • New York University School of Medicine • Assistant Professor of Biochemistry • Professor of Pharmacology • Professor of Biochemistry • Chairman of the Department of Biochemistry • Received the 1959 Nobel Prize in Psychology or Medicine for work on synthesis of RNA • Recipient of the U.S. Medal of Science in 1959

  7. Mae Jemison MD (Oct. 17, 1956 – Present) • Chemical engineer, scientist, physician, teacher and astronaut • B.S. in Chemical Engineering and doctorate in Medicine • First African American female to go into space • Spent 190 h 30 min 23 s in space • Founded The Jemison Group, Inc. which develops technologies to benefit the developing world

  8. Sarah Goode (1850 - ?) • First African American women to be granted a patent • Invented the cabinet bed which is also the first “hide-away” bed • A bed that folded up and could be used as a cabinet or a desk • Started a furniture store in New York City

  9. Madame C. J. Walker (Dec. 23, 1867 – May 25, 1919) • Founded the Madam C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company • The Company sells hair care and cosmetics • It became the largest business owned by an African American in the United States • She also became America’s first self-made women millionaire • Prominent women’s and African American’s rights activist

  10. Shirley Ann Jackson (Aug. 5, 1946 – Present) • Holds a doctorate in Physics • First African-American woman to earn a doctorate degree from MIT • Appointed Chairman of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (first African American Women to be appointed this position) • Inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1998 • Jackson became and is currently the 18th president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

  11. Katherine G. Johnson (Aug. 26, 1918 – Present) • Holds degrees in French and Mathematics • Began working for NASA and was transferred to the flight research program • Helped plot the navigational paths for both manned and unmanned missions • John Glenn’s first flight into space • Neil Armstrong’s landing and moon walk • Earth Resources Satellite • Recipient of the Group Achievement Award, NASA's Lunar Spacecraft and Operations • Honorary Doctor of Laws from the State University of New York

  12. Archibald Alexander (1888 - 1958) • Degree in Civil Engineering • Formed a general contracting firm responsible for…. • The heating plant and power station for the University of Iowa • A sewage treatment plant in Grand Rapids, Michigan • An airfield in Tuskegee, Alabama • Tidal Basin Bridge in Washington, D.C • K Street Freeway • Appointed first Republican Territorial Governor of the Virgin Islands by President Eisenhower

  13. David Crosthwait, Jr. (May 27, 1989 – 1976) • Holds a Masters of Engineering • Considered an authority on heat transfer, ventilation and air conditioning • Received 39 patents relating to heating, ventilation, refrigeration, and air conditioning systems • Responsible for designing the heating system for Radio City Music Hall, Rockefeller center in New York City • Granted an honorary doctoral degree from Purdue University

  14. Meredith C. Gourdine (Sept. 26, 1929 – Nov. 20, 1998) • Doctorate in Engineering Science • Pioneered the research of electrogasdynamics • Established Gourdine Laboratories, a multi-million dollar research laboratory • Responsible for term “Incineraid:” aiding in the removal of smoke from buildings • successfully converted natural gas to electricity for everyday use • Holds More than 70 patents for his various inventions

  15. Luis Howard Latimer (Sept. 4, 1848 – 1928) • Served in the Civil War • Three patented inventions • Better light filament manufactures • New support for arc lights • Better way to attach the bulb filament to the wires • Unpatented inventions include improved designs for almost all equipment and steps involved in the lampmaking process • Better oven to bake the filaments • Glassblowing equipment • Better light socket and switch • Founding member of the Edison Pioneers

  16. Frederick McDonald Massiah (December 12, 1886 - July 7, 1975) • Degree in Civil Engineering • Established a construction business • Among the first successful Black contracting engineers in the country • Accomplishments • Elliptical dome of the Ascension of Our Lord Church • William Donner X-Ray Laboratory • Sewage disposal plant in Trenton, New Jersey • Ahead of his time in his use of reinforcing for concrete • Awarded the Harmon Foundation Medal for Engineering

  17. Caldwell McCoy (June 27, 1933 – Nov. 19, 1990) • June 27, 1933 – November 19, 1990 • Doctor of Science degree in Telecommunications • Awarded the Laboratory's Thomas Edison Fellowship in 1968 • Director of the Information Systems Program at NASA • As program manager for the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Network • Elected to become a member of the Senior Executive Service, the highest rank to be achieved by a civil service employee

  18. Elijah McCoy (May 2, 1843 – October 10, 1929) • Studied Engineering in Scotland • Invented an automatic lubricator for oiling the steam engines of locomotives, boats, ect. • Held 57 patents mostly related to lubrication, but also including a folding ironing board and a lawn sprinkler • Formed the Elijah McCoy Manufacturing Company

  19. Garret A. Morgan (March 4, 1877 – July 27, 1963) • Invented a hair straightening liquid while trying to improve sewing machines • Invented the “breathing device” which was later known as the gas mask • Patented the automatic traffic light • Started a newspaper called the Cleveland Call

  20. Percy A. Pierre (January 3, 1939 – Present) • Doctor of Science in Electrical Engineering • Dean of the School of Engineering at Howard University (1971 to 1977) • Assistant Secretary for Research, Development, and Regulation for the U.S. Department of the Army (1977-1981) • President of Prairie View A&M University (1983-89) • Vice President for Research and Graduate Studies, MSU (1990-1995) • Currently a full-time Professor of Electrical Engineering at MSU

  21. John B. Slaughter (1934 - Present) • Ph.D. in Engineering Sciences • Director of the Applied Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington (1975) • Appointed Assistant Director for Astronomics, Atmospherics, Earth and Ocean Sciences at the NSF (1977) • Chancellor of the University of Maryland (1982-1988) • President of Occidental College in Los Angeles (1988-1999) • President and CEO of The National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering, Inc

  22. Virgil Trice (February 3, 1926 – Oct. 31, 1997) • Master of Science in Industrial Engineering • Chemical engineer at the Argonne National Laboratory (1947 - 1971) • Nuclear waste management engineer for the Energy Research and Development Administration (1971 - 1977) • Senior program analyst for the U.S. Department of Energy (1977 – 1981) • Program Manager for the U.S. Department of Energy (1981 - 1992) • Until his death he focused his work on Nuclear Waste Management

  23. O. S. (Ozzie) Williams (Sept. 2, 1921 – Oct. 31, 1997) • M.S. in Aeronautical Engineering • First African American hired by Republic Aviation • Group project engineer for Greer Hydraulics, Inc. (1956-1962) • Worked for Grumman International, • Helped develop and produce the guidance systems for NASA’s Apollo Space Program • Became vice president in charge of trade and industrial relations with emerging African nations • Traveled to West African in 1973 to establish Grumman’s African headquarters

  24. George Washington Carver (July 12, 1864 – Jan. 5, 1943) • Masters of Science in Agricultural Science • Directed the department of agriculture at Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (1896) • As a result of exhaustion of Southern Farms • Developed 300 derivative products from peanuts • Developed 118 from sweet potatoes • This improved demand so farmers could get nitrogen back into the soil and sell the crop because of increased demand • Donated his life savings to the establishment of the Carver Research Foundation • Produced dyes of 500 different shades during WW2 to replace textile dyes formerly purchased from Europe

  25. Santiago Ramón y Cajal (May 1, 1852 – Oct. 17, 1934) • Spanish histologist, physician and Nobel laureate • Obtained the degree of Doctor of Medicine • Director of the Zaragoza Museum (1879) • University Professor at Valencia (1881) • Director of the National Institute of Hygiene (1899) • Put forth many theories on neurons and electrical synapses • Shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1906 • Founder of the Laboratorio de Investigaciones Biológicas (1922) • Later named Instituto Cajal • Published more than 100 articles in French and Spanish scientific periodicals

  26. Carlos Finlay (Dec. 3, 1833 – Aug. 20, 1915) • Degree in Medicine • Opened a medical practice in Havana, Cuba • Developed theories on weather conditions and yellow fever • Was the first to theorize that the mosquito was a carrier of yellow fever • This discovery helped in the construction of the Panama Canal • Chief health officer of Cuba (1902 -1909) • A monument called El Obelisco was built in Havana in the shape of a syringe to honor Dr. Finlay

  27. Baruj Benacerraf (Oct. 29, 1920 – Present) • Venezuelan-American Immunologist • Doctor of Medecine • Researcher at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons (1948–50) • Research in Paris (1950–1956) • New York University (1956–68) • National Institutes of Health (1968–70) • Harvard University (1970–91) • Shared the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine • Discovery of the immune response genes that are responsible for transplant rejection • Received the National Medal of Science (1990)

  28. Granville T. Woods (April 23, 1856 – Jan. 30, 1910) • 1887, he patented devices for wireless induction telegraphy • 1889, he filed his first patent for an improved steam-boiler furnace • Patented an apparatus which was a combination of a telephone and a telegrap called a “telegraphony” (1850) • Developed the concept of a third raid for trains which is used today in the subway • Developed a safe and inexpensive dimmer switch for theaters

  29. Dr. Patricia E. Bath (Nov. 4, 1942 – Present) • Medical Doctorate • First African-American woman surgeon at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center. • First woman faculty member of the UCLA Jules Stein Eye Institute • First African-American woman to receive a patent for a medical invention • She developed a laser device to remove cataracts - “Laserphaco Probe” (1988) • First woman program director of a postgraduate training program in the United States • Also the first woman chair of an ophthalmology department (1983 to 1986) • founded the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness and serves as the organization's president

  30. Otis Boykin (Aug. 20, 1920 – 1982) • Attended Fisk University and Illinois Institute of Technology (1946-47) • Developed a type of resistor used in computers, radios, television sets, and a variety of electronic devices • Responsible for inventing the electrical device used in • Guided missiles, • IBM computers, • Also 26 other electronic devices • His resistor designs reduced the cost of producing electronic controls for radio and television, for both military and commercial applications

  31. Jan Ernst Matzeliger (Sept. 15, 1852 – Aug. 24, 1889) • Invented a shoe-lasting machine and patented his invention in 1883 • Before the invention, shoes were produced in a factory at a rate of 40-50 pairs a day • Using the invention, shoe production increased to between 150 to 700 pairs of shoes a day • In addition to production, As a result of this invention shoe prices were cut in half across the nation • This invention laid the foundation of the shoe industry in the United States and made Lynn, Massachusetts the shoe capital of the world

  32. References • www.nobelprize.org • www.aaregistry.com • www.sce.com • www.math.buffalo.edu • www.infoplease.com