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Group Discussion and Observation Techniques

Group Discussion and Observation Techniques

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Group Discussion and Observation Techniques

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    1. 1 Group Discussion and Observation Techniques Chapter 14 Galanes, et. al.

    2. 2 Objectives Use Roberts Rules of Order (reading). Explain uses of problem census & RISK. (Group 2) Explain uses & procedures for focus groups & buzz groups. (Group 3) Plan & lead brainstorming & synectics sessions to enhance group creativity. Explain & use PERT. (Group 1)

    3. 3 Describe purpose & procedure for Nominal Group Technique. (Group 4) Explain what quality circles & self-managed work groups are, how they work, and what is necessary for them to be successful. (reading). Describe electronic support mechanisms such as teleconfer-encing, webcasts, discussion boards, chats, etc. (reading).

    4. 4 Regulating Group Discussion Administrative matters Responsibilities of the chair Discussing, making motions, & voting

    5. 5 Special Discussion Techniques & Methods for Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Groups Special techniques can be used to improve regulation of discussion, enhance problem-solving effectiveness, improve overall teamwork in organization.

    6. 6 Group Techniques for Increasing Problem-Solving Effectiveness Identifying Problems The problem census The RISK technique

    7. 7 Problem Census Bring in items for discussion Each person gives one problem for discussion (round-robin fashion) Each problem posted for all to see Group prioritizes top 3-5 (all problems remain on list) Easily resolved issues removed Remainder dealt w/ in turn at mtg or later date

    8. 8 RISK Technique Leader presents proposal & asks group to note problem areas. Members brainstorm (or 1st work individually). Problems posted in round-robin fashion (leader must not critique). All risks compiled into master list & circulated. At 2nd mtg, more risks added, deleted as needed.

    9. 9 Group Techniques for Increasing Problem-Solving Effectiveness Generating Information and Ideas Focus groups Buzz groups

    10. 10 Focus Groups Used to identify problems & interests, concerns of employees or public, potential markets, & possible directions for innovations Participants engage in free-association discussion Discussion usually recorded for later content analysis

    11. 11 Buzz Group For large group write question problem divide into groups of 6 Appoint recorder List as many areas as possible in 5 minutes, then 1 minute reviewing list (Phillips 66) Rank order list as a group List is reported to larger group

    12. 12 Buzz Groups (cont.) 3 ways to report to larger group Collect cards, edit & eliminate duplications, duplicate & distribute list to entire group Ask each recorder to report orally (round-robin) 1 new item as secretary records all items on chart in from of room. Then process lists w/problem consensus techniques. Have each recorder present entire list to speaker or panel

    13. 13 Group Techniques for Increasing Problem-Solving Effectiveness Enhancing Group Creativity Brainstorming Brainstorming variations Brainwriting Electronic brainstorming

    14. 14 Group Techniques for Increasing Problem-Solving Effectiveness Metaphoric and Analogic Thinking Personal analogy Direct analogy Symbolic analogy Fantasy analogy

    15. 15 Sample Analogy: JFKs Administration to Camelot

    16. 16 Group Techniques for Increasing Problem-Solving Effectiveness Implementing ideas with PERT Nominal group techniques Quality circles Self-managed work groups

    17. 17 Program Evaluation & Review (PERT) Describe final step. (solution) Enumerate events that must occur before goal achieved. Order these steps chronologically. Generate list of activities, resources, materials needed to accomplish steps Estimate time needed to do each step & add total time needed to do it all Compare to deadline expectation.

    18. 18 Nominal Group Technique Works best for long range planning & major problems than for routine assignments Reduces secondary tension Prevents aggressive conflict Eliminates some long winded speeches

    19. 19 Nominal Group Technique, cont. Group given clear def. of problem. Each individual brainwrites for 5-15 min. Each idea listed on chart for all to see & clarified, but NOT evaluated. Each person ranks top preferred items on notecards (or identifies w/stickers) Highest ranked items are identified, discussed, & critically analyzed. Decision is reached or remaining items voted on & process is repeated until support for one idea emerges. Group takes action on results.

    20. 20 Quality Circles A group of employees meeting on company time to investigate work-related problems & to make recommendations for solving these problems. Used by many American companies & nonprofits

    21. 21 Self-Managed Work Groups A small group of peers who determine within prescribed limits their own work schedules & procedures. Eliminates many traditional supervisory positions

    22. 22 Using Technology to Help a Group Instant messages, electronic bulletin boards, chat Teleconferences Videoconferences Audioconferences Computer conferences Group decision support systems (GDSS)

    23. 23 The End

    24. 24 Jeopardy Review You will see a definition. Answer by saying, What is and adding the term that is being defined.

    25. 25 Problem Census A technique in which group members are polled for topics and problems that are then posted, ranked by voting, and used to create agendas for future meetings.

    26. 26 RISK Technique A small group procedure for communicating and dealing with all risks, fears, doubts, and worries that members have about a new policy or plan before it is implemented.

    27. 27 Focus Groups A group procedure that encourages unstructured discussion focusing on a speckfic topic or issue, often used to analyze peoples interests and values for market research.

    28. 28 Buzz Group Session Method whereby attendees at a large group can participate actively; the large meeting is divided into groups that discuss a target question, then report their answers to the entire large assembly.

    29. 29 Brainstorming A small group technique for stimulating creative thinking by temporarily suspending evaluation.

    30. 30 Electronic Brainstorming Brainstorming on computers linked to a large screen that displays all responses, but no one knows who contributed which items

    31. 31 Synectics A group technique that encourages members to use unusual analogies and metaphors to create innovative solutions to problems.

    32. 32 PERT (Program Evaluation & Review) A procedure for planning the details to implement a complex solution that involves many people and resources.

    33. 33 Nominal Group Technique A procedure in which group members brainwrite individually to generate ideas, then interact to pool, clarify, and evaluate the ideas until a solution has been accepted by weighted voting.

    34. 34 Quality Circle (Quality Control Circle) A group of employees meeting on company time to investigate work-related problems and to make recommendations for solving these problems.

    35. 35 Self-Managed Work Group A small group of peers who determine within prescribed limits their own work schedules and procedures.

    36. 36 Teleconference A meeting of participants who communicate via mediated channels such as television, telephone, or computer, rather than face-to-face.

    37. 37 Group Decision Support Systems Computer-based hardware and software systems designed to help groups improve a variety of group outcomes, such as creativity, problem solving, and decision making.