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Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy

Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy

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Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy

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  1. Radiation Protection inRadiotherapy IAEA Training Material on Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy Part 10 Good Practice in EBT Lecture 1 (cont.): Equipment design

  2. 3. Operational Considerations • General Considerations include the following requirements • Operation of a radiotherapy facility must be authorized by the relevant regulatory authority • Suitably trained staff must be available • All changes to equipment, purchases and decommissioning must be reported to the relevant regulatory authority • Some guidance on equipment specifications is given in part 5 of the course - part 18 will provide more information on regulatory requirements Part 10, lecture 1 (cont.): Equipment design

  3. Operation of equipment • radiation generators and irradiation installations include provisions for selection, reliable indication and confirmation of operational parameters such as • type of radiation • indication of energy • beam modifiers (such as filters) • treatment distance • field size • beam orientation • either treatment time or preset dose Part 10, lecture 1 (cont.): Equipment design

  4. Most of this information is provided by computer interface type of radiation indication of energy beam modifiers treatment distance field size beam orientation treatment time preset dose Varian Part 10, lecture 1 (cont.): Equipment design

  5. Most of this information is provided by computer interface type of radiation indication of energy beam modifiers treatment distance field size beam orientation treatment time preset dose Part 10, lecture 1 (cont.): Equipment design

  6. Acceptance Testing and Commissioning • Acceptance testing: verifying that the machine fulfils all the specifications given by the manufacturer and the ones agreed on as requirements for purchase. In addition to this the unit should fulfil ALL safety requirements as documented by national and international standards (e.g. IEC documents) • Commissioning: ensuring that the unit is suitable for patient treatment within a certain department. This includes preparation of planning data and verification thereof. Part 10, lecture 1 (cont.): Equipment design

  7. Operational Considerations • Comprehensive acceptance testing and commissioning tests shall be carried out by appropriately qualified experts prior to initial treatment • A comprehensive quality assurance programme with the participation of appropriate qualified experts in the relevant fields shall be established Part 10, lecture 1 (cont.): Equipment design

  8. Commissioning • Commissioning of radiotherapy equipment is a very important and complex process • Only qualified experts should perform the commissioning and certify that a treatment unit is fit for use on patients • One needs to know all specs of the equipment AND have the appropriate tools (water phantom, ion chamber, …) Part 10, lecture 1 (cont.): Equipment design

  9. Commissioning • The commissioning process is not only informed by the equipment itself but also by its intended use and its role within the department. • e.g. a linac which shall be used primarily for stereotactic radiotherapy will require a different set of tests than a unit which will be used for prostate patients... Part 10, lecture 1 (cont.): Equipment design

  10. Commissioning • Protocols exist which provide guidance through the commissioning process (see reference list) • A subset of the commissioning process can serve as protocol for ongoing quality assurance • Commissioning of new equipment leads to requirements for training of staff Part 10, lecture 1 (cont.): Equipment design

  11. Qualification and Training • Accreditation or certification schemes exist from many professional organisations or boards • The skills required are practical and theoretical • Experience essential • More on this in part 18 of the course Part 10, lecture 1 (cont.): Equipment design

  12. Safety first... • Once the equipment has been installed, the first commissioning tests should be • preliminary radiation survey as soon as the equipment is powered to ensure that it is safe to proceed • once the equipment has been fully set up and tuned, carry out a full survey outside the treatment room • survey the shielding attached to the equipment Part 10, lecture 1 (cont.): Equipment design

  13. Records are essential They must be complete, easily accessible and understandable They serve both as baseline for future evaluation of the equipment and QA and as data which may be required for legal purposes... Part 10, lecture 1 (cont.): Equipment design

  14. Summary • Good design of equipment provides the best safeguard against accidents • Design criteria should follow the ‘defense in depth’ principle • Understanding radiotherapy equipment and its operation is essential for the commissioning process Part 10, lecture 1 (cont.): Equipment design

  15. Where to Get More Information • Parts 5, 7 and 18 Part 10, lecture 1 (cont.): Equipment design

  16. IEC reference list · International Electrotechnical Commission. Particular requirements for medical electron accelerators in the range of 1MeV to 50MeV, Section Two: Radiation safety for equipment, International Standard 601-2-1, part 2; Geneva: Bureau Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale; 1981 · International Electrotechnical Commission. Particular requirements for the safety of remote-controlled automatically-driven gamma-ray afterloading equipment, International Standard 601-2-17. Geneva: Bureau Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale; 1989 · International Electrotechnical Commission. Medical electron accelerators – functional performance characteristics, International Standard 976. Geneva: Bureau Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale; 1989 · International Electrotechnical Commission. Medical electron accelerators in the range 1 to 50MeV – guidelines for functional performance characteristics, International Standard 977. Geneva: Bureau Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale; 1989 · International Electrotechnical Commission. Radiotherapy simulators - functional performance characteristics, International Standard 1168. Geneva: Bureau Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale; 1993 · International Electrotechnical Commission. Electromedical Equipment – Particular requirements for the safety of radiotherapy treatment planning systems, International Standard 62083. Geneva: Bureau Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale; 1998. Part 10, lecture 1 (cont.): Equipment design

  17. Any questions?

  18. Question: Please explain how the ‘defense in depth’ principle can be (and has been) applied to ensuring that a linear accelerator is turned off after the correct dose is given to the patient.

  19. Acknowledgment • Malcolm Millar, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia Part 10, lecture 1 (cont.): Equipment design