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Osborn-Parnes Creative Problem Solving Process

Osborn-Parnes Creative Problem Solving Process

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Osborn-Parnes Creative Problem Solving Process

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  1. Osborn-Parnes Creative Problem Solving Process • Mess-finding • Fact-finding • Problem-finding • Idea-Finding • Solution-finding • Acceptance-finding • Follow-up (my addition) MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  2. Morale Absenteeism Turnover Mess-Finding MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  3. Mess-Finding A mess is a system of problems whose interactions are complicated and not clearly understood. Taken as a system, problems do not exist in isolation; each affects the fate of the mess of which they are a part. Evans, 1990 MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  4. Mess-Finding Reactive Approach: Observing unexpected change in a metric (e.g. increase in student tardiness, decrease in student performance). Proactive Approach: Administrators seek messes—never stop looking for ways to improve the operation. Evans, 1990 MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  5. Mess-Finding A critical aspect of mess-finding is identifying a measure of effectiveness (MOE). MOEs are used to find out how well an existing system works and what it is worth. Change in an MOE can show that a mess exists. Example: percentage of tardies. Evans, 1990 MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  6. Mess-Finding Tools Control Charts Indication of possible mess MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  7. Another Mess-Finding Tool Gap Analysis What SHOULD be What ACTUALLY is Gap MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  8. Symptoms: Inconsistencies between how the system is expected to perform and how it is actually performing. The inconsistency is referred to as a Gap. Raised expectations Something’sgone wrong Gap Gap Double whammy It never did work right Gap Gap MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  9. Fact-Finding Measures of Effectiveness Organization’s Goals Basic Issues Existing Models Obstacles MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  10. Fact-Finding The purpose of fact-finding is to gather as much information as possible to increase understanding about the mess. Fact-finding helps avoid premature evaluation of the specific problems entwined in the mess. Focus is on mess – not solutions at this stage. Evans, 1990 MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  11. Fact-Finding VanGundy’s Questions for Diagnosing a Mess • What do you know about the situation? • What would be better if you resolved this situation? What would • be worse? • 3. What is the major obstacle facing you in dealing with this situation? • 4. What parts of the situation are related? • 5. When is the situation likely to get worse? Get better? MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  12. Fact-Finding Kepner & Tregoe’s Questions for Diagnosing a Mess • What is the deviation (versus what it is not)? • When did the deviation occur (versus when it did not occur)? • Where did the deviation occur (versus where it did not occur)? • To what extent did the deviation occur (versus to what extent it • did not occur)? • Who is associated with the deviation (versus who is not associated • with it)? MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  13. Driver problem Bus problem Student problem Fact-FindingSome Helpful Tools • Flow Charts • Check Sheets MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  14. Problem-Finding Mess Problem MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  15. Problem-Finding The development of a problem statement for the real problem. Encompasses: • Conditions • Symptoms • Causes • Triggering events MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  16. Problem-Finding Types of errors: • Type I: Solving a problem that doesn’t exist. • Type II: Failing to recognize that a problem exists and therefore not solving it. • Type III: Solving the wrong problem. MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  17. Problem-Finding Example of Type III error: Problem identification: Teachers do not smile at students. Real problem: Teachers have wrong attitudes about students. MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  18. Problem-FindingSome Helpful Tools • Pareto Charts • Devil’s Advocacy • Five “Whys?” • Root Cause Analysis MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  19. Idea-Finding MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  20. Idea-Finding Purpose: To generate alternative ideas for solutions to the problem. The more ideas the better. Creativity is important. MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  21. Idea-FindingSome Helpful Tools • Brainstorming • Cause-and-Effect Diagrams MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  22. Idea-FindingMore Helpful Tools • “What if?” questions • Change the wording of the problem statement. • Representing the problem in a different form. MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  23. Solution-Finding Acceptance Practicality Cost Performance Time ROI NPV MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  24. Solution-Finding Purpose: To select the best solution from the alternatives identified in the idea-finding stage. Criteria for “best.” MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  25. Acceptance-Finding Policies “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it!” Obstacles Trust “We’ve always done it this way” “That will never work here” Resources Power Risk Plan MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  26. Acceptance-Finding Purpose: To develop a plan of action to implement the solution. The solution must be sold to the constituents. MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving

  27. Acceptance-FindingSome Helpful Tools • PERT Charts • Gantt Charts MGT 575 Creative Problem Solving