MANAGEMENT The integration and coordination of organizational resources to attain goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling
MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS Long term measure of how well an organization achieves its objectives EFFECTIVENESS Long term measureof how well an organization achieves its objectives EFFICIENCY Short term measure of how well an organization uses it resources EFFICIENCY Short term measure of how well an organization uses it resources GOAL A desired future states that contributes to the fulfillment of the organization's mission GOAL A desired future states that contributes to the fulfillment of the organization's mission MISSION = Reason for existence
FOUR FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT PLANNING: Specifying the goals to be achieved and deciding in advance the appropriate action taken to achieve those goals. ORGANIZING: Assembling and coordinating human, financial, physical, informational and other resources needed to achieve goals. LEADING/ DIRECTING: Guiding, motivating and communicating with individuals and groups to achieve organizational goals. CONTROLLING: Ensuring the organization is run according to plan and that organizational goals are met.
The Origins of Management • Industrialization in the U.S. • A new industrial era begin in the U.S. around the time of the Civil War (early 1860s). • Managers attempted to better plan, organize, and control the work of their organizations. Railroads
The Origins of Management One best way • Classical/Scientific Management • Frederick Taylor applied scientific methods to jobs in an attempt to maximize the output of workers. Time & Motion studies Split Management & Labor
The Origins of Management • Human Relations • The Hawthorne Studies 1920s • Illumination Study at Western Electric Plant • Someone cared • Discovered that the behavior of an individual worker is modified by the influence of his or her work group. • Uncovered the “Hawthorne Effect” • Workers felt important because someone was observing and studying them at work. Thus, they produced more because they were observed and studied.
The Origins of Management • Behavioral Science • X&Y • Application of behavioral sciences to Management Douglas McGregor • Management Sciences/Operations Research • WWII • Math and Science
The Origins of Management • Contingency Theory • “It all Depends” • Systems Theory • View organization as a system that interacts with it’s environment. • Open • Interdependent
The Basic Elements of a System Environment Transformation Process Outputs Inputs Feedback
BASIC COMPONENTS OF ANY SYSTEM System has an objective which can be accomplished by interaction of the system sub-units An energy source to “drive” system An energy conversion process to “produce” the objective Transformation Process A communication network between system units
SIMPLE SYSTEM Closed System wires (communication network) Open System Battery
ADDITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS Time Patterns Repeat • Negative Entropy Loss of energy Movement toward disorganization death Cycle of Events
ADDITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS • The Steady State & Dynamic Homeostasis Consistent energy exchange System will attempt to maintain/restore “steady state” But constantly changing in reaction to environment - Adapting • Equifinality Multiple paths from initial conditions to final objective
Organizational Structure and Design MG 540 • Structure of the Organization • The structure of the organization refers to the components of the organization and how these components fit together. • Job Design • Refers to the processes by which managers specify the contents, methods, and relationships of jobs and specific task assignments to satisfy both organizational and individual needs.
Organizational Structure and Design • Organizational Processes • A number of behavioral processes contribute to effective organizational performance including leadership, communication, decision making, and organizational change and development.
Chapter 2Organizational Culture John M. Ivancevich Michael T. Matteson
Organizational Culture • Some of the Definitions of Culture: • Symbols, language, ideologies, rituals, and myths. • Organizational scripts derived from the personal scripts of the organization’s founder(s) or dominant leader(s). • Is a product; is historical; is based upon symbols; and is an abstraction from behavior and the products of behavior.
Exhibit 2.1: Schein’s Three-Layer Organizational Model Examples of Cultural Attributes I Artifacts and Creations Visible but often not decipherable - Documents - Physical layouts - Furnishings - Language - Jargon - Work ethic and practice - Loyalty - Commitment - Helping others II Values Greater level of awareness III Basic Assumptions Taken for granted invisible preconscious
Organizational Culture and its Effects Since organizational culture involves shared expectations, values, and attitudes, it exerts influence on individuals, groups, and organizational processes.
Socialization and Culture • Socialization • Socialization is the process by which organizations bring new employees into the culture.
Chapter 3Individual Differences and Work Behavior John M. Ivancevich Michael T. Matteson
PERSONAL PROFILE THE PERSONAL PROFILE SYSTEM WAS DESIGNED TO INCREASE SELF AWARENESS OF ONE'S OWN STYLE AND THE STYLE OF OTHERS TO ENHANCE EFFECTIVENESS IN WORK RELATIONSHIPS THE PROFILE REFLECTS "TENDENCIES" WE ALL DEVELOP PATTERNS OF WORK BEHAVIOR BASED ON INDIVIDUAL VALUES, WANTS, INTERESTS, NEEDS... * THIS IS NOT A TEST. YOU CAN NOT PASS OR FAIL. * THERE ARE NO "RIGHT" OR "BEST ANSWERS". * PROFILE DESCRIBES ONLY NORMAL BEHAVIOR. * IT IS A FORCED CHOICE INSTRUMENT.
Active Aggressive “I” Influencing Interest in People PERSONAL PROFILE WORKSHEET “D” Directive Dominance Impulsive Outgoing Gregarious Calculated Direct Deliberate Peo ple Task “S” Steadiness Stability “C” Compliance Competence Less Active Adaptive Relationships - Predictable World Security By the book - Right way - My way
PERSONAL PROFILE WORKSHEETWork Behavioral Tendencies High “I” Optimistic (maybe overly) Unorganized Natural Social Grace (attracts people) Fears: Social Disapproval Needs: Held Accountable (time limits) High “D” High Ego Strength Impatience (wants action, makes decisions) Appear Aloof Fears: Being Taken Advantage Of Needs: To be confronted
PERSONAL PROFILE WORKSHEETWork Behavioral Tendencies High “C” Perfectionist Tactful Seeks Detail (natural planner) Fears: Criticism Of Work Needs: To See Big Picture High “S” Slow To Change Possessive (two families, natural to serve) Takes Criticism Personally Fears: Loss Of Security Needs: Encouragement To Risk
That’s it for today On to groups
Exhibit 3.1: Variables that Influence Work Behavior Individual Behavior Work Behavior Organizational Behavior - Demographic factors - Abilities and skills - Perception - Attitudes - Personality - Productive - Nonproductive - Counterproductive - Resources - Leadership - Rewards - Structure - Job Design
Demographic Factors Demographic factors include a number of individual differences that influence behavioral choices Nationality Race Age Socioeconomic Background Educational Attainment Sex
Abilities and Skills Innate Learned - Spatial Orientation - Hand-Eye Coordination - Numerical facility - Using a keyboard - Operating equipment - Driving an automobile
Perception • Perception • Is the cognitive process by which an individual gives meaning to the environment. • Perception refers to the acquisition of specific knowledge about objects or events at any particular moment, it occurs whenever stimuli activate the senses. Receiving, Organizing, and Integrating. • Stereotyping • Is the process employed to assist individuals in dealing with massive information-processing demands.
Perception Selection -see what we want to see Expectations - supports previous view Self Image - good self image, see other favorably Figure-ground - Closure - fill in missing pieces Situational factors Needs/Emotions Stereotyping - Is the process employed to assist in dealing with massive information-processing demands.
The Attribution Processneed to determine caused Event Analysis of what caused the event Reinforcement or modification of previous assumptions of causality Choices regarding future behavior Example: I received a raise I received a raise because I am a hard worker Hard work leads to rewards in this organization Since I value these rewards, I will continue to work hard in the future
Exhibit 3.4: Internal and External Attributions Distinctiveness Does the person behave in the same manner in different situations? Consistency Does this person behave in this same manner at other times? Consensus Do other people behave in this same manner? Internal Attribution Yes Yes No Low Distinctiveness High Consistency Low Consensus -------------------------- -------------------------- -------------------------- No No Yes External Attribution Low Consistency High Distinctiveness High Consensus
Attribution Errors • Fundamental Attribution Error • Tendency to underestimate the importance of external factors and overestimate the important of internal factors when making attribution about the behavior of others. • Self-Serving Bias • The tendency that people have to take credit for successful work and deny responsibility for poor work.
Attribution Errors • Actor/Observer Bias • The tendency to view others successful work to external causes and poor work to internal causes.
Attitudes Defined An attitude is a mental stage of readiness, learned and organized through experience, exerting a specific influence on a person’s response to people, objects, and situations with which it is related.
Personality Defined A relatively stable set of feelings and behaviors that have been significantly formed by genetic and environmental factors. Locus of Control Internalizers externalizers
Exhibit 3.7: Some Major Forces Influencing Personality Cultural forces Individual Personality Social class and other group membership forces Hereditary forces Family relationship forces
Chapter 13Communication John M. Ivancevich Michael T. Matteson
Communication Defined The transmission of information and understanding through the use of common symbols.
Communication Defined The transmission of information and understanding through the use of common symbols.
How Communication Works Communications experts tell us that effective communication is the result of a common understanding between the communicator and the receiver. In fact the word communication is derived from the Latin communis, meaning “common.”
Exhibit 13.1: The Communication Process Inform Purpose Prompt action Sender Encode Medium Decode Receiver Noise Noise Feedback
Important Concepts in Communications • Noise • Interference in the flow of a message from a sender to a receiver. • Nonverbal Communication • Messages sent with body posture, facial expressions, and head and eye movements.
Barriers to Effective Communication Frame of Reference Selective Listening Value Judgments Source Creditability Status Differences Time Pressures Filtering Overload
Exhibit 13.3: The Johari Window: Interpersonal Styles and Communication Feedback Less More Known by Self Unknown by Self Less Known by Others Arena Blindspot Unknown by Others Exposure Facade Unknown More
The Johari Window:Interpersonal Styles and Communication Feedback Less More BS A Exposure F Unk More • Type A • Managers who use neither exposure nor feedback. The managers exhibit anxiety and hostility and give the appearance of aloofness and coldness towards others.
Managerial Styles & Interpersonal Styles of CommunicationSlide 1 of 2 • Type A • Managers who use neither exposure nor feedback. The managers exhibit anxiety and hostility and give the appearance of aloofness and coldness towards others. • Type B • Managers that do not use exposure but rather rely on feedback. These managers are unable to open up and express their feelings.
Managerial Styles & Interpersonal Styles of CommunicationSlide 2 of 2 • Type C • Managers who use exposure at the expense of feedback. The consequence of this style is the perpetuation and enlargement of the blindspot. • Type D • Managers who use a balance of exposure and feedback. These managers have the most effective interpersonal communication style.
Keys to Effective Multicultural CommunicationSlide 1 of 2 • Mangers who are effective in multicultural communication have three distinct attributes: • They have made a point to familiarize themselves with significant cultural differences that might affect the communication process.