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Literary Terms

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  1. Literary Terms

  2. Genre is an important word in the English class. We teach different genres of literature such as poetry, short stories, myths, plays, non-fiction, novels, mysteries, and so on. When we speak about a kind of literature we are really speaking about a genre of literature. So when someone asks you what genre of literature you like, you might answer, poetry, novels, comics, and so on. Genre

  3. A character is a person or an animal that takes part in the action of a literary work. Character

  4. The Antagonist is a character or force in conflict with a main character, or protagonist. Antagonist

  5. On your paper take a few minutes to write down some Antagonists that you can recall from movies, television shows, and video games • Remember the Antagonist is in conflict with the Protagonist or, main character! • Helpful hint – you should now know why people use the saying “Don’t antagonize me!” Do you know your Antagonists???

  6. The Protagonist is the main character in a literary work • Can you name some famous Protagonists that are found in literature? Protagonist

  7. Characterization is the process by which the writer reveals the personality of a character. Characterization is revealed through direct characterization and indirect characterization. CHARACTERIZATION

  8. Direct Characterization tells the audience what the personality of the character is. Example: “The patient boy and quiet girl were both well mannered and did not disobey their mother.” Explanation: The author is directly telling the audience the personality of these two children. The boy is “patient” and the girl is “quiet.” DIRECT CHARACTERIZATION

  9. Indirect Characterization shows things that reveal the personality of a character. There are five different methods of indirect characterization: INDIRECT CHARACTERIZATION

  10. Plot is the sequence of events. The first event causes the second, the second causes the third, and so forth. Plot

  11. PLOT TRIANGLE Climax Rising Action Falling Action Resolution Exposition Conflict Introduced

  12. Introduction • Introduces the characters, setting, and basic situation. Exposition

  13. The setting of a literary work is the time and place of the action. The setting includes all the details of a place and time – the year, the time of day, even the weather. The place may be a specific country, state, region, community, neighborhood, building, institution, or home. . Setting

  14. Events that lead to the climax of the story. Rising Action

  15. Point of greatest emotional intensity, interest, or suspense. • Typically comes at the turning point in a story or drama. Climax

  16. Action that follows the climax and reveals its results. Falling Action

  17. Part of the plot that concludes the falling action by revealing or suggesting the outcome of the conflict. Resolution

  18. There are 3 ways of telling a story: • 1st person - "I" tells the story and is a character in the story; this can be present tense or past tense. • 2nd person - "You" is used to tell the story; these tend to be like Choose Your Own Adventure stories or computer games and are usually in the present tense. • 3rd person - "He, she, it, they" - the story is told by someone, usually not identified by name, who knows it. Usually in the past tense. POINT OF VIEW

  19. The theme of a literary work is its central message, concern, or purpose. A theme can usually be expressed as a generalization, or general statement, about people or life. The theme may be stated directly by the writer although it is more often presented indirectly. When the theme is stated indirectly, the reader must figure out the theme by looking carefully at what the work reveals about the people or about life. Theme

  20. CINDERELLA

  21. Setting: long ago, the palace, the ball, a far away kingdom, the home of Cinderella's step-mother. • Characterization: • Cinderella: loving, kind, works hard, pretty, innocent, hero, cheerful, smart, happy. • Step-mother & step-sisters: jealous, mean, ugly, self-absorbed, villain, lazy, nasty. CINDERELLA

  22. Theme: Work hard and good things come. What goes around comes around. • Plot: • Exposition: • As a child, Cinderella was happy. After her mother died, her father re-married a mean woman with two daughters. The step-mother gave her daughters everything and Cinderella nothing. CINDERELLA

  23. Rising Action: • A messenger delivers an invitation to the ball. The step-mother tells Cinderella she can go if she finishes her chores. The Fairy Godmother gives Cinderella a dress and coach. Cinderella arrives at the ball and dances with the Prince. On the way out she drops her shoe. • Climax: • The Prince finds Cinderella and puts the glass slipper on her foot. It fits! • Resolution: • Cinderella and the Prince get married.

  24. Conflict: • Man vs. Man (Cinderella vs. step-mother and step-sisters). • Man vs. Nature (Cinderella vs. the stroke of midnight). CINDERELLA

  25. Conflict is the struggle between opposing forces in a story or play. There are two types of conflict that exist in literature. Conflict

  26. External conflict exists when a character struggles against some outside force, such as another character, nature, society, or fate. Man vs. Society (The Monsters are Due on Maple Street) Man vs. Man (Cinderella vs. step-mother and step-sisters) Man vs. Nature (Cinderella vs. the stroke of midnight) External Conflict

  27. Internal conflict exists within the mind of a character who is torn between different courses of action. Man vs. Himself (A Christmas Carol) Internal Conflict

  28. Mood, or atmosphere, is the feeling created in the reader by a literary work or passage. Writer’s use many devices to create mood, including images, dialogue, setting, and plot. Often, a writer creates a mood at the beginning of a work and then sustains the mood throughout. Sometimes, however, the mood of the work changes dramatically. MOOD

  29. Imagery is words or phrases that appeal to one or more of the five senses. Writers use imagery to describe how their subjects look, sound, feel, taste, and smell. Imagery

  30. A flashback is a literary device in which an earlier episode, conversation, or event is inserted into the sequence of events. Often flashbacks are presented as a memory of the narrator or of another character. Flashback

  31. The movie Titanic is told almost entirely in a flashback. What are some other films that contain flashback to help tell stories? Holes Willy Wonka Think of some more… Flashback continued…

  32. Foreshadowing is the author’s use of clues to hint at what might happen later in the story. Writers use foreshadowing to build their readers’ expectations and to create suspense. This is used to help readers prepare for what is to come. Foreshadowing

  33. Example: Scrooge wished he could rid himself of the sick feeling in his gut that told him something terrible was going to happen. Foreshadowing in Literature

  34. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE

  35. A figure of speech is a specific device or kind of figurative language, such as hyperbole, metaphor, personification, simile, or understatement. Figurative language is used to state ideas in vivid and imaginative ways. Figures of Speech

  36. A Simile is another figure of speech that compares seemingly unlike things. Similes use the words like or as. Examples: Her voice was like nails on a chalkboard. The metal twisted like a ribbon. She is as sweet as candy. Simile

  37. Using “like” or “as” doesn’t always make a simile. A comparison must be made. Not a Simile:I like pizza. Simile:The moon is like a pizza. Important!

  38. A Metaphor is a type of speech that compares or equates two or more things that have something in common. A metaphor does NOT use like or as. Examples: Life is a bowl of cherries. All the worldis a stage. Her heart is stone. Metaphor

  39. Personification is a figure of speech in which an animal, object, force of nature, or idea is given human qualities or characteristics. Examples: Tears began to fall from the dark clouds. The sunlight danced. Water on the lake shivers. The streets are calling me. Personification

  40. Alliteration is the repetition of sounds, most often consonant sounds, at the beginning of words. Alliteration gives emphasis to words. Example: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers Alliteration

  41. A word that “makes” a sound • SPLAT • PING • SLAM • POP • POW Onomatopoeia

  42. Juxtaposition is a literary technique in which two or more ideas, places, characters and their actions are placed side by side in a narrativeor a poem for the purpose of developing comparisons and contrasts Juxtaposition

  43. “What two images are juxtaposed here?” “What is the same about these images? What is different?”“Why did the artist want you to compare these two images?”

  44. “How did the author of A Long Walk to Water juxtapose Nya and Salva?” Juxtaposition in A Long Walk to Water

  45. On a separate sheet of paper… • I will put an example of figurative language on the board. • You will write whether it is an simile, metaphor, personification, juxtaposition, or onomatopoeia. • You can use your notes. Quiz

  46. He drew a line as straight as an arrow. 1

  47. Knowledge is a kingdom and all who learn are kings and queens. 2

  48. The sun was beating down on me. 3

  49. A flag wags like a fishhook there in the sky. 4

  50. Ravenous and savagefrom its longpolar journey,the North Windis searchingfor food— 5