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Unit 10 A Debt to Dickens

Unit 10 A Debt to Dickens

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Unit 10 A Debt to Dickens

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  1. Unit 10 A Debt to Dickens

  2. Contents • A. Text one • I. Pre-reading: • (I) Warm-up questions • (II) Background information • II. While-reading: Text Analysis • (I) Structure analysis • (II) Comprehension questions • (III) Language points • (IV) Difficult sentences • III. Post-Reading: • (I) Grammatical items • (II) Translation Exercises • (III) Oral activities • (IV) Writing practice • B. Text two • (I)Questions for text comprehension • (II)Language points

  3. Pre-reading: (I) warm-up questions A. text one • I. Pre-reading: • (I) warm-up questions • Is there a person or a book that has greatly influenced you? What is it? How does it influence you?

  4. Pre-reading: (II)Background information • 1. Pearl Buck • Pearl Sydenstricker Buck (June 26, 1892 – March 6, 1973), also known by her Chinese name Sai Zhenzhu (Chinese: 賽珍珠; pinyin: Sài Zhēnzhū), was an American writer and novelist.

  5. Pre-reading: (II)Background information • As the daughter of missionaries, Buck spent most of her life before 1934 in China. Her novel The Good Earth was the best-selling fiction book in the U.S. in 1931 and 1932 and won the Pulitzer Prize in 1932. In 1938 she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces."

  6. While-reading: (I) Structure analysis • II. While-reading: Text Analysis • (I) Structure analysis Structural analysis 2 It introduces the setting and the relationship between the writer and Charles Dickens. The writer recalls her isolated childhood life in a remote Chinese countryside, her unpleasant experiences and the painful feeling she had because she was a foreigner.

  7. While-reading: (I) Structure analysis Structural analysis 3 The writer narrates and describes her experiences as a voracious reader. The writer highlights Dickens’ great influence upon her.

  8. While-reading: (II) Comprehension questions • (II) Comprehension questions • 1) How do you interpret the debt which the writer has owed since she was seven years old? • According to the context, the debt the writer has owed is not a sum of unpaid money, instead, it is her feeling of warm gratitude to Charles Dickens, who long ago in China rendered an inestimable service to her. • 2) In the eyes of the writer, what is the best way to pay her debt to Charles Dickens? • As far as the writer can see, the best way to express her heartfelt thanks to Dickens is to write down what Charles Dickens did for her in China a long time ago.

  9. While-reading: (II) Comprehension questions • 3) What is the message that is stressed in the second paragraph? (Paragraph 2) • While living in that remote rural area, the narrator as a small child was very alien to the people and was laughed playfully at and thought of as ugly and even unfortunate by them. • 4) What is the main idea of Paragraph 3? (Paragraph 3) • The main idea of Paragraph 3 is that as she still felt alien, and as her parents were too busy to pay any heed to her, she longed very much to have companios, but she had none.

  10. While-reading: (II) Comprehension questions • 5) Why did the narrator say, “She was an impossible voracious reader”? (Paragraph 4) • There were no books suitable for her to read in that remote village. Since she had the desire to read, she searched and read all the books she could find instead of being frustrated. • 6) How does the narrator describe the way she read the novel Oliver Twist? (Paragraph 5) • One day, the author discovered the book named Olive Twist by Charles Dickens. She buried herself reading the book all day. • 7) In what ways was the narrator greatly benefited or enlightened by Dickens? (Paragraph 6) • He opened her eyes to people, and taught her to love all sorts of people, to hate hypocrisy and pious mouthing of unctuous words. He gave her an immense zest for life, that immense joy in life and in people, and in their variety. In short, the narrator learned many invaluable things from Charles Dickens.

  11. 8. Point out the sentences in Paragraph 6 that are parallel to each other. What rhetorical effect can parallelism product? (Paragraph 6) • “He opened my eyes to people, he taught me to love all sorts of people, high and low, rich and poor, the old and little children. He taught me to hate hypocrisy and pious mouthing of unctuous words. He taught me that beneath gruffness there may be kindness, and that kindness is the sweetest thing in the world, and goodness is the best thing in the world. He taught me to despise money grubbing.” These sentences are characterized by parallelism, by virtue of which they are fluid and smooth, expressive and impressive.

  12. While-reading: (III) Language points • (III) Language points • 1. render:v. cause sb. or sth. to be in a particular condition; give sb.or do sth., because it is your duty or because sb. expects you to • e.g. He was rendered almost speechless by the news. • It is an obligation of ours to render assistance to those in need. • Derivation: • 2. inestimable:adj. too great, precious, etc. to be estimated • e.g. Your advice has been of inestimable value to us. • The value of your assistance is inestimable. • Synonym: • invaluable

  13. While-reading: (III) Language points • 3. linger: v. stay for a long time and be reluctant to leave; be slow; dawdle • e.g. She lingered after the concert, hoping to meet the star. • They lingered over coffee and missed the train. • Derivations: • lingerer: n. • lingering: adj. • Synonyms: • stay; remain • Collocations: • linger about/around/on

  14. While-reading: (III) Language points • 4. heed: v. give attention to; consider seriously • e.g. She didn’t heed my warning/advice. • Their offspring do not heed to what they say. • Derivations: • heed: n. • heedful: adj. • heedless: adj. • Collocations: • pay heed to • take heed (of sth.)

  15. While-reading: (III) Language points • 5. isolate: v. separate; single; solitary; standing alone • e.g. Several villages have been isolated by the floods. • The poor girl from an isolated village was deeply impressed by the tall buildings in the city. • Derivations: • isolation: n. • isolated: adj. • Collocations: • isolate sth. (from sth.) • in isolation • Translation: • 科学家们已分离出引起这种流行病的病毒。 • Scientists have isolated the virus causing the epidemic.

  16. While-reading: (III) Language points • 6. voracious: adj. having an extremely strong desire to do or have a lot of sth. • e.g. Teenagers usually have voracious appetites. • She is a voracious reader of biographies. • Derivation: • voracity: n. adj. • Synonym: • greedy

  17. While-reading: (III) Language points • 7. somber: (BrE: sombre) adj. dark-colored; dull and dismal; sad and serious • e.g. She prefers to wear somber clothes. • You could see a sombre expression on his face that day. • Derivation: • somberness: n. • Synonyms: • serious; grave; dark • Translation: • A funeral is a sombre occasion. • 葬礼是个悲伤的场合。

  18. While-reading: (III) Language points • 8. desperate: adj. feeling or showing great despair and ready to do anything regardless of danger; in great need (of sth./to do sth.) • e.g. The prisoners grew more desperate with the approaching date of execution. • She is desperate for money. • Derivation: • desperation: n. • Collocation: • desperate for sth./to do sth.

  19. While-reading: (III) Language points • 9. agile: adj. able to move quickly and easily • e.g. Monkeys are agile, hence the idiom “as agile as a monkey”. • This little boy has an agile mind. • Derivation: • agility: n. • Synonym: • nimble

  20. While-reading: (III) Language points • 10. rouse: v. (fml) waken • e.g. The noise roused me from/out of a deep sleep. • The speaker tried to rouse his listeners to action. • Derivation: • rousing: adj. • Collocations: • rouse from/out of • rouse to • Translation: • I warn you, he’s dangerous when he’s roused! • 我警告你,他一旦被惹怒是非常可怕的。

  21. While-reading: (III) Language points • 11. zest: n. a feeling of being enthusiastic, eager, excited, interested, etc. • e.g. Her zest for life is as great as ever. • He entered into our plans with terrific zest. • Derivation: • zestful: adj. • Synonym: • enthusiasm n. • Translation: • The element of risk gave an added zest to the adventure. • 这种冒险成分给探险活动平添了几分乐趣。 • The danger of being caught gave a certain zest to the affair. • 做这种事情有被发现的危险,但这倒增加了刺激性。

  22. While-reading: (IV)Difficult sentences (IV)Difficult sentences • 1.I know no better way to meet my obligation than to write down what Charles Dickens did in China for an American child. (Paragraph 1) • Paraphrase: As far as I can see, the best way to express my warm gratitude to Charles Dickens is to put in black and white the inestimable service he rendered in China to an American child.

  23. While-reading: (IV)Difficult sentences • 2. She lingered beside villages of boat folk, and saw them live, the babies tied to a rope and splashing in the shallower waters. (Paragraph 2) • Paraphrase: She stayed near villages of fishermen and their families, reluctant to leave. She witnessed how they lived. She saw their babies fastened with a rope and sitting or standing in the shallower waters and playing with water. • Explanation: Waters means a mass of water in a river, lake, etc.; a sea or a large area of water near or belonging to a particular country • e.g. The waters of the lake flow out over a large waterfall. • The ship is moving through the stormy waters of the Atlantic. • The ship drifted into Turkish territorial waters. • The species are found in inland waters. • Translation: 她流连于渔民聚集的村落,观看他们的生活,许多婴儿都用绳子系着在浅滩里戏水。

  24. While-reading: (IV)Difficult sentences • 3. However kindly the people about her might be, and they were much more often kind than not, she knew that she was foreign to them. (Paragraph 3) • Paraphrase: No matter how kindly and friendly the people around her might be, and they were very often kind indeed, she knew that she was alien to them. • Explanation: More often than not means very frequently; usually • More often than not the trains are crowded during the Spring Festival. • When it is foggy, the buses are late more often than not. • Translation: 无论周围的人们对她多友善,他们通常对她的确相当的友善,她知道自己对于他们仍是外国人。

  25. While-reading: (IV)Difficult sentences • 4. … they were too busy to pay much heed to her and so she wandered about a great deal, seeing and learning all sorts of things. (Paragraph 3) • Paraphrase: As her parents were so much preoccupied with their own work that they paid little attention to her, she often walked about slowly and aimlessly, observing and getting to know all kinds of things. • Explanation: Pay heed to means pay attention to; take notice of. • You should pay much heed to the doctor's advice. • Their offspring do not pay much heed to what they say. • Translation: 他们太忙以至于不能很好地关心她,因此她常常四处徘徊,观看和学习各种各样的事物。

  26. While-reading: (IV)Difficult sentences • 5. …, I was wretched with indecision. (Paragraph 5) • Paraphrase: ..., I felt unhappy because I was unable to decide whether I should read it all straight over again or pick out a new book to read. • Translation: 犹豫不决真让我苦恼。 • 6. …, and after that I still kept a Dickens book on hand, so to speak, to dip into and feel myself at home again. (Paragraph 6) • Paraphrase: ..., from then on I almost always had a Dickens book within easy reach to read and feel myself comfortably back once more on familiar territory. • Explanation: so to speak: used when you are saying something in words that do not have their usual meaning • e.g. We have to pull down the barriers, so to speak, of poverty. • The whole of life, so to speak, is involved in the pursuit of the good life. • Translation: 从那以后,我仍然将一本狄更斯的书带在身边,可以说,这让我沉浸在一种身处家乡的舒适感受中。

  27. 7. He taught me to hate hypocrisy and pious mouthing of unctuous words. (Paragraph 6) • Paraphrase: He taught me to hate both the act of pretending to be very good and insincere earnestness. • Explanation: The word "mouth", when used as a verb, is usually derogatory, often in the meaning of saying something that you don't really believe or you don’t understand. • Translation: 他教会我憎恨虚假伪善、油腔滑调。

  28. III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items • III. Post-Reading • (I) Grammatical items: • 1. The passive voice • 2. Subordination

  29. III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items • 1. The passive voice • A passive construction occurs when you make the object of an action into the subject of a sentence. That is, whoever or whatever is performing the action is not the grammatical subject of the sentence. • The Passive is formed: Passive Subject + To Be + Past Participle. If the agent is important (the person, company or thing that does the action) , use “by”. If it is not definite and does not carry any essential information, it can be omitted. • ※Only verbs that take an object can be used in the passive voice. • e. g. Houses are built. • My bike was stolen.

  30. III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items Practice Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the verbs given. Consolidation Activities- Grammar3 1. People were surprised to find that an enormous hole (cut) in the steel door by the burglars. 2. It’s high time that he (tell) to stop behaving like a child. 3. As she (climb) the ladder, it slipped sideways and she fell off it. 4. I know a new film (show) at the cinema these days. had been cut ______________ was told _________ was climbing ______________ are being shown __________________

  31. III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items 5. I know a new film (show) at the cinema in two days. 6. I know a new film (show) at the cinema recently. will be shown _______________ has been shown __________________

  32. III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items • 2. Subordination • Subordination (abbreviated variously subord, sbrd, subr or sr) is a complex syntactic construction in which one or more clauses are dependent on the main clause. Dependent clauses are also called “subordinate clauses”. • Subordinate clauses are introduced by a subordinating conjunction, such as, after, although, as much as, as long as, as soon as, because, before, if, in order that, lest, since, so that, than, that, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, whether, and while, etc. • e.g. I don't know if George is awake yet. • George overslept because his alarm clock was broken.

  33. III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items Practice Join the two sentences into one, using the words and phrases given. Consolidation Activities- Grammar12 in order that unless as since when until 1. You will hurry up. You will miss the bus. You will miss the bus unless you hurry up. 2. No one is against the proposal. We will adopt the proposal. Since no one is against the proposal, we will adopt it.

  34. III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items in order that unless as since when until Consolidation Activities- Grammar13 3. The train had left. I reached the station. I didn’t reach the station until the train had left. 4. It was raining hard. We had to be indoors. As it was raining hard, we had to be indoors. 5. You are crossing the street. You must be careful. When you are crossing the street, you must be careful.

  35. III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items in order that unless as since when until Consolidation Activities- Grammar14 6. I sent the letter by air mail. It might reach him in time. I sent the letter by air mail in order that it might reach him in time.

  36. III. Post-Reading: (II)Translation Exercises • (II)Translation Exercises • 1 有些学生渴望学自己想要学的,而不是被要求学的东西。(long) • Some students long to study what they want to, not what they are asked to. • 2.有许多志愿者为北京2008奥运会提供了有价值的服务。(render a service to) • Many volunteers rendered a valuable service to the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. • 3. 世界经济处于危急状态,各国政府必须采取紧急措施应对。(desperate) • The world economy is in a desperate situation, so all governments must take desperate measures to cope with.

  37. III. Post-Reading: (II)Translation Exercises • 4. 剪刀,刀具,火柴及药物都必须置于孩子们拿不到的地方。(beyond the reach of ) • Scissors, knives, matches, and medicine must be kept beyond the reach of children. • 5. 我身边总放着一笔钱, 至少一千元, 以备急用。(on hand) • I always keep a sum of at least 1000 yuan on hand, in case of emergency. • 6. 诚实的人鄙视谎言和说谎的人。(despise) • Honest people despise lies and liars.

  38. III. Post-Reading: (II)Translation Exercises • 7. 我花了很长的时间才开始感觉到对英语能运用自如。(feel at home) • It was a long time before I began to feel at home in English. • 8. 由于经济衰退,有些中小企业家可以说是债台高筑。(so to speak) • Because of the financial recession, some of small- and medium-size enterprises are, so to speak, up to their necks in debt.

  39. III. Post-Reading: (II)Translation Exercises • 9. 他就是这样的人,总是人前甜言蜜语,背后恶语相加。(mouth) • He is a man that always mouths fine words about people to their faces and speaks ill of them behind their backs.   • 10. 我当时被激进分子表现出来的狂热给吓坏了。(zest) • I was greatly scared by the zest demonstrated by those radicals.

  40. III. Post-Reading: (III) Oral activities • (III) Oral activities • Having a discussion • As English majors, you must have read Charles Dickens either in the original or in Chinese, or have seen a movie or a TV play based on one of his novels, or at least have heard about him and his major novels. Have a discussion in groups of five or six, sharing information with your fellow students about Charles Dickens and his works.

  41. III. Post-Reading: (IV) Writing (IV) Writing Write a short essay on the following topic in about 150 words.

  42. III. Post-Reading: (IV) Writing • Sample:

  43. III. Post-Reading: (IV) Writing

  44. Text two: (I) Questions for text comprehension B. Text two • (I) Questions for text comprehension • Questions for discussion • 1. Why is a good book the most patient and cheerful of companions? • 2. What are the essential qualities of a good book? • 3. How does the good and true thought act as an angel of mercy? • 4. Why are good works immortal? • 5. According to the author, what is the ultimate goal of reading a good book?

  45. Text two: (I) Questions for text comprehension • Key to Questions for discussion • 1. A good book offers the reader a means of communication with the author, we find pleasure in learning about life and possible solutions to our problems in a good book. Through it, we sometimes understand situations which are hard to understand in real life. • 2. Good books beyond time and place expose us to the accumulated wisdom of human civilization. They see into the very depths of our souls and guide our behavior. They point out evils in society and challenge us to seek social or political reforms. They express feelings that people anywhere might have at any time and provide knowledge about unfamiliar subjects or give new insights into familiar ones. • 3. It may help to purify and exalt one’s narrow, selfish and petty personal aims of life into a noble and meaningful purpose of life. • 4. Good work speak to us about broad human values besides the meaningful words and phrases used. These values are universal and have a far-reaching impression • 5. The ultimate goal of reading a good book is to be able to understand it, to evaluate it, and to use • it for one’s needs. A good book expand our experiences and abilities and to find new interests.

  46. Text two: (II) Language points • (II) Language points • 1. … there is a companionship of books as well as of men; … (Paragraph 1): There are some books you enjoy spending your time reading just as there are some people you enjoy spending time with; … • companionship: when you are with someone you enjoy being with, and are not alone • e.g. When Stan died, I missed his companionship. • Mrs. Greene keeps dogs for companionship and security.

  47. Text two: (II) Language points • 2. …, whether it be of books or of men. (Paragraph 1): … no matter whether the company should be that of books or that of men. • Here the verb be is in the subjunctive. The subjunctive is a verb form or a set of verb forms in • grammar, used in a few cases to express doubt, wishes, etc. In very formal language (e.g. legal • documents), be is sometimes used after if and whatever. • e.g.If any person be found guilty… • … whatever be the reason

  48. Text two: (II) Language points • 3. It does not turn its back upon us in times of adversity or distress. (Paragraph 2): It does not • refuse to help us when we are in serious trouble or when we feel extremely unhappy. • turn one’s back on: (often derog.) avoid; go away from, esp. when one should stay • e.g.My explanation of the saying “A friend in need is a friend indeed” is that a person who never turns his/her back on you who are in need of help is a real friend.

  49. Text two: (II) Language points • 4. A good book is often the best urn of a life enshrining the best that life could think out; … • (Paragraph 5): A good book preserves and exposes us to broad human values and wisdom of human civilization. If a tradition, right, etc. is enshrined in something, it is preserved and protected so that people will remember and respect it. • e.g.The right of free speech is enshrined in the Constitution. • Memories of happier days were enshrined in the old man’s heart.