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Paulynne J. Castillo De La Salle University - Manila PowerPoint Presentation
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Paulynne J. Castillo De La Salle University - Manila

Paulynne J. Castillo De La Salle University - Manila

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Paulynne J. Castillo De La Salle University - Manila

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  1. Regional Production Networks and Implications on Trade and Investment Policies, and Regional Cooperation: The Case of the Philippines Paulynne J. Castillo De La Salle University - Manila

  2. Introduction • GPNs have come to be seen as dynamic topologies • GPN is seen to supersede the transnational corporation as the most effective form of industrial organisation • trade and investment liberalisation • rapid up-take of information and communication technologies • the onset of ‘global’ competition

  3. Objectives • to emphasize the importance of trade and investment liberalization the creation and success of GPNs • to draw attention to the significance of GPNs in the performance of three of the Philippine’s important industries, namely, electronics and electrical equipment, textile and garments, and automotive • to discuss the implications of GPNs on development policy.

  4. Outline • Understanding GPNs • The Role of Regional Trading Blocks • Trade Liberalisation and GPNs • Foreign Direct Investments and GPNs • GPNs in the Philippine Industry Sector • Semiconductor • Automotive • Garments and Textile • Global Production Networks and Local Development Policy

  5. Understanding Global Production Networks (GPNs)

  6. What is a Global Production Network? • a large, multi-divisional multinational corporation (a.k.a., flagship), its subsidiaries, affiliates and joint ventures, its suppliers and subcontractors, its distribution channels and value-added resellers, as well as its R&D alliances and a variety of cooperative agreements, such as standards consortia (Ernst, 1997, Sloan, and 2000, JEINT)

  7. Nature of GPNs • main purpose is to gain quick access to lower-cost foreign capabilities • outsourcing allows firms to focus on core business and improve efficiency • market based • concentration of trade, proximity, scale economies and efficiency. • takes advantage of differences in comparative advantage between countries at a finer level of specialization

  8. The Role of Regional Trading Blocks

  9. Trade Liberalization and GPNs • trade liberalization, falling transportation costs, income convergence among the main trading economies, and increased vertical international production sharing • ‘trade liberalisation appears to have contributed about 75% of the (approximately) 2% annual growth of world merchandise trade; transport-cost declines25% of the growth in trade relative to income’ (Baier and Bergstrand, 2001)

  10. Trade Liberalization and GPNs • international production sharing appears to be more a product of bilaterally or multilaterally negotiated preferential agreements • evidence suggests that, in addition to geographic proximity and significant differences in wage rates, vertical production sharing has been stimulated by discriminatory country-specific concessions for specific products under various preferential trading agreements

  11. Summary of Philippine Trade Policy Reforms • Unilateral Trade Liberalization • Tariff Reform of the Philippines • Regional Trade Liberalization • ASEAN • APEC • Multilateral Trade Liberalization • World Trade Organization

  12. Impact of Policy Reforms

  13. Impact of Policy Reforms • Increased competitiveness of the manufacturing sector

  14. Foreign Direct Investments and GPNs • FDIs can make the most extensive and vibrant contribution to host country growth and development when the parent corporation has made the affiliate an integral part of the firm’s strategy to maximize its corporate position in world markets

  15. Foreign Direct Investments and GPNs • the incorporation of latest technologies, quality control procedures, and management techniques speeded up • the pace of upgrading production processes and production output responded to the cycle of innovation in home country markets

  16. Foreign Direct Investments and GPNs • impact from foreign direct investment in assembly and processing varies greatly • creation of integrated international supply chains via foreign direct investment enables host economies to perform activities they already undertake more efficiently • more importantly, it allows host economies to enter entirely new realms of industrial production.

  17. The Semiconductor Industry

  18. Industry Definition • includes hardware (i.e. electronics equipment and components) software, information services, and a variety of newly emerging markets that result from the convergence of digital information, audio and video, and communication technologies (i.e., internet services)

  19. Production Process • production of semiconductors and microprocessors is capital-intensive • Capital-rich country such as the US, Japan, EU or a middle-income Asian country dominate its production. • assemblage of the final products, however, is labour-intensive • Assembly plants can be located in a labour-rich country such as China and the Philippines

  20. GPNs in the Semiconductor Industry • combines a massive, yet highly concentrated, international dispersion of the value chain with an important organizational innovation • a response to the increasingly demanding coordination requirements of geographic dispersion, and integrate the dispersed supply and customer bases of a global network flagship company

  21. GPNs in the Semiconductor Industry • critical capability is the intellectual property and knowledge associated with setting, maintaining and continuously upgrading a de facto market standard • requires perpetual improvements in product features, functionality, performance, cost and quality (Teece, 1986) • given rise to a proliferation of specialized suppliers, segmenting the industry into separate, yet closely interacting horizontal layers (Grove, 1996)

  22. GPNs in the Semiconductor Industry • Only 1% of the final assembly of HDDs has remained in the US • Southeast Asia dominates with almost 70% of world production, based on units shipped • Slightly less than half of the world´s disk drives come from Singapore, with most of the rest of the region´s production being concentrated in Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines

  23. GPNs in the Semiconductor Industry • Much of the activity in MNC affiliates is still at the simple assembly and testing level (despite the fact that some MNCs use local engineers for advanced activities) • Average local content is only 20% in semiconductors, 25%, in simple items like printed circuit boards, 10-15%, in complex products like microprocessors • below the average levels reached in Malaysia (around 45%) and Taiwan (75%)

  24. GPNs in the Semiconductor Industry • local supplier capabilities (especially among SMEs) are weak • practically no local producers with the capability to take on original equipment manufacture (OEM), which was one of the main arrangements used by firms in Korea and Taiwan to access new technologies and export advanced electronics products

  25. The Automotive Industry

  26. GPNs in the Automotive Industry • Brand-to-Brand Complementation (BBC), introduced by ASEAN in 1988 and succeeded by the ASEAN Industry Cooperative Organization (AICO), allowed auto assemblers to obtain privileges of a 50% tariff reduction • Indonesian subsidiary in gasoline engines • Thai subsidiary in diesel engines • Philippine subsidiary in transmissions, • Malaysian subsidiary in steering gears and electrical parts

  27. GPNs in the Automotive Industry • Philippine subsidiaries in meters • division of labor seems to have evolved gradually with the expansion of operations in ASEAN, rather than as an overall restructuring of regional operations • focusing on the production of exportable components and strengthening ties with multi-national suppliers in order to secure global sourcing contracts

  28. The Garments and Textile Industry

  29. GPNs in the Garments and Textile Industry • OECD market has been moving to higher quality products, where the cost of labour per se counts for less • Wages will remain the overwhelming consideration for the slowly diminishing segment of the lowest quality products • In others, technology, specialization, design, marketing and flexibility will be the dominant competitive factors

  30. GPNs in the Garments &Textile Industry • future of Philippine clothing exports will depend on quality upgrading • use of new technologies, better access to the best fabrics and other inputs, advanced technical, management, design and marketing skills, and timely delivery and flexibility • high degrees of vertical integration • raise productivity by benchmarking

  31. Conclusion: Where do we go from here?

  32. GPNs and Local Development Policies • GPNs is placing new demands on local policy-makers • support the acquisition of new knowledge and competencies in the industrial community • ensure that the gains from learning are distributed on a fair basis among local actors

  33. GPNs and Local Development Policy • to sustain the integration of local firms within GPNs through networking strategies between local institutions, supporting agencies, and enterprises • in specialized industrial clusters, policy institutions can find new, flexible ways of interacting between themselves and with businesses • upgrading the quality of jobs particularly in EPZs

  34. Thank you.