“The more things change, the more they stay the same.”(Jean-Baptiste Alphonse Karr, 1849)
Opening Activity Responding to CHANGE
How do you view change? • Pick a card that depicts change for you. • Pick another random card and don’t look at it. • Form a small group consisting of no more than 5 in group.
Round One • Each person describes what they see in their picture. • Each person then talks about how their picture represents change. • The group can then add their own interpretations of any picture.
Round Two • Use picture two and each person describes their picture. • The picture now represents how others view you in relation to change – discuss if this is true for you.
Where are we now? Thumbs Up? Thumbs Down? Has the number/percent of students who struggle with reading/math/behavior increased or decreased in recent years? How strong is the belief in schools that all students can achieve at higher levels? Of the students who fall behind, what percent would you say catch up as a result of current programs in our schools? How much do you already know about RtII?
Between 1976–77 and 1996–97, the number of students served as learning disabled increased 283 percent. (Gresham, p. 1)
Response to Instruction and Intervention • A Standards‐aligned System for Student Success • High Quality Standards‐aligned Curriculum and Research‐based Instruction
Core Programs • Serve as the base of reading/math/behavior instruction • Provide complete instruction in the key components of reading/math/behavior • Are designed for all settings and all students • Are preventive and proactive
Core Programs Also • Align student materials and assessments • Provide small and large group instructional activities • Scaffold to support initial learning and transference of skills • Provide ongoing cumulative review
Core Components of RtII • Standards aligned instruction in a research-based core program (Clear Standards) • Universal screening ( Fair Assessment) • Shared responsibility for all students (Instruction, Interventions, Materials and Resources) • Data-based team decision making (Curriculum Framework) • Progress Monitoring • Benchmark Assessment • Outcome Assessment • Tiered intervention and service delivery system (Curriculum, Instruction, Materials, Interventions) • Research-based interventions • Flexible grouping • Fidelity of Implementation • Parental engagement (Student Achievement)
The most crucial work of RtI implementation is ensuring quality teaching in the standards aligned general education core curriculum.
RtI Defined • RtI is a (n)… • general education led effort implemented within the general education system; coordinated with all other services including special education, Title I, ELL, Migrant Education, etc. • system to provide instructional intervention/enrichment immediately upon identification of student need. • Continuum of options to ensure that all students’ needs are met as measured through academic growth • RtI is not a (n)… • individual teacher • single classroom • special education program • gifted program • an added period of instruction • a separate, stand alone initiative
From RtI to RtII: We gained an ‘I’ • Instruction is the Key! • Promotes the importance of effective instruction in building a strong core (Tier 1) • Promotes the provision of standards-aligned instruction for all students • Focuses Tier 2 and 3 implementation efforts on effective instructional practices • Discourages teams in building Tiers 2 and 3 structures without a strong, standards aligned instructional core
Supports for Pennsylvania Educators High Expectations Unconditional Support Meaningful Student Engagement Strong Results for Students Clear & Consistent Boundaries Connectiveness & Bonding Skills for Life
SAS and RtII: The Connection Tier I of the RtII framework provides access to high quality standards based curriculum and instruction for all students. Research-validated interventions are implemented based on the type, level and intensity of student need. RtII organizes assessment practices and requires schools to use the four types of assessments to determine the effectiveness of curriculum/intervention and drive instructional adjustments. Examples, Summative: PSSA, PVAAS Benchmark: 4 Sight Diagnostic: GRADE, GMADE Formative: Formal and Informal (progress monitoring, ticket out the door). RtII organizes curriculum and instruction to ensure all students receive the standards aligned core curriculum. ALL staff (Gen, Sp Ed, Title, ESL) assume responsibility and an active role in instruction in the core curriculum. High quality instruction is at the heart of RtII. The framework organizes instruction to ensure the use of high leverage, research-based instructional practices at each tier. Processes are in place to ensure instructional fidelity. RtII requires the selection and use of materials and resources that align with standards based curriculum and research based standard protocols to address specific skill acquisition.
How Did We Get Here? • Summative and Formative Assessment Tools • PSSA, PVAAS • 4Sight Benchmark, Aimsweb, other district assessments • Scientifically research-based Reading and Math programs • Effective Instruction • Flexible Grouping • Differentiated Instruction • Scaffolding • Immediate Feedback • Learning Focused • Progress Monitoring • Data-based decision making RtI
What is my role? Roles in an RtI Framework: • Delivery of core instruction • Providing small group instruction • Implementing programs for targeted enrichment • Data manager • Facilitator and/or participant in grade level meetings • Selection of enrichment/acceleration opportunities • Administer benchmark assessment • Monitor progress of individual students • Monitor fidelity of core and intervention/enrichment programs
Shifting to a Collaborative Approach • Introduction to collaboration • Pre-collaboration preparations • Communication skills
Why Focus on Collaboration? • Opportunities for highlighting shared goal of child success • Capitalize on strengths of all stakeholders
Think - Pair - Share • What are some ways that collaboration can occur? • Describe a time when collaboration didn’t go well and discuss why.
Why Focus on Relationships? • Acknowledged or not, a relationship ALWAYS exists. • Good relationships serve as a strong foundation for promoting child success and for problem-solving, should difficulties arise.
What Do Collaborative (Trusting) Relationships Look Like? • Respectfulness • Listening and clear communication • Considering views of all when planning • Competence • Doing what you say you will and doing it well • Personal regard • Helping each other feel more comfortable • Integrity and commitment • Doing what it takes • Acting in the best interest of others
Collaboration:a COOPERATIVE relationship… …in which individuals share both the power and the responsibility needed to support child success.
…and a BALANCED relationship! • Educators assume responsibilities within their roles as instructors and among other educators. • Students assume their responsibilities as learners.
Professionals interact in environments that present not only opportunities but a range of organizational constraints. These constraints add another level of complexity to relationships between professionals. Thus, collaborative care experiments have been situated in a wide spectrum of structural and physical settings, yet one element clearly stands out: every institution and every professional faces major challenges in finding better ways to work together.
Why Are Collaborative Relationships Hard to Develop? • Limits on time • Relationships are risky • Range of personalities
What do I need to know about myself and others in order to collaborate successfully? Gregorc Self-Assessment
Communicating Clearly We have two ears but only one mouth so that we can listen twice as much as we speak. ~Chinese proverb
Communication: Listening Effectively • Adopt the “Ambassador” Perspective • maintain an open mind • ask questions and listen carefully • assume others know more than you • expect and respect differences • help others pursue their own goals • always curious, often confused • Adapted from Murphy and Duncan (1997)
Communication: Listening Effectively Question Starters from the Ambassador’s Perspective • I’m wondering if…. • Could it be…. • Is it possible that…. • Help me understand how…. • Let me make sure I understand…
Communication: Speaking Effectively First commandment of collaboration- Ask before you answer!!! Solicit the other participants’ ideas before offering your ideas… (even when you have valuable suggestions.) Why?
Communication: Delivering Difficult Messages • Be brief and ask for reaction after a couple of sentences. Do not support your positions with a lot of examples. • Convey confidence (optimism) the problem can be solved. Not me vs. you But you and me vs. the problem
What do I need to know about myself and others in order to communicate successfully? Communication Self-Assessment
I wish to acknowledge many outstanding professionals whose contributions to the field of education have helped me to understand the importance of being relentless in the pursuit of excellence for those students who, along with their families, trust us to bring them safely through their school experience enabling them to have the lives intended by their Creator.
When you are facilitating… • Be sure every person gets to express views • Interrupt any blaming • Use questions judiciously • Summarize before changing topics
Productive Use of Conflict
Building Relationships One Opportunityat a Time Preparation Communication Consensus Commitment
Contact Info: email@example.com
Responsiveness to Intervention: An Alternative Approach to theIdentification of Learning Disabilities • Frank Gresham University of CA, Riverside