Natural Environment and Human Development • In general, people much prefer to look at a nature scenes than urban scenes • Nature is even more important to people today than it was in ancient days because people go to nature to be restored and refreshed. E.g., “to recharge my batteries”
People can experience these in natural setting Cognitive freedom Freedom to pay attention to whatever we like and to do what we choose to do, when we choose to do it Escape The chance to be relatively free from the rules and constraints of society Experience nature • We go to nature for reasons other than to escape everyday life Growth People seek growth when they are in the great outdoors, which is an opportunity to develop themselves & to learn what the natural environment has to teach them (skills, knowledge of the woods, self-knowledge, self-actualization, or in one’s spiritual domain)
Ecosystem connectedness To sense ecosystem connectedness, the awareness that we are part of the immensity of nature and the cosmos Challenge Adrenaline experience the excitement that emerges in potentially dangerous situation such as rock climbing, white-water rafting, etc Guidance When the challenge involves responsibility for others (such as being a leader) Social Being in nature with your family or friends Health Nature improves mental and physical health Self-Control Nature can provide a therapeutic experience by giving its visitors a chance to exert self-control
How does nature restore us ? • The affective-arousal approach • (nature’s benefits) • Culture • Mental fatigue approach • (Rachel & Stephan Kaplan) • The Evolutionary/ bio-philia approach • (Roger Ulrich et al.)
How does nature restore us ? • The Affective-Arousal approach(nature’s benefits) • derive from the positive emotions it elicits in us & that any calm, peaceful setting will have similar benefits. • Culture as the main factor • we learn through our family & culture to love nature & to dislike cities nature’s benefits result more from being in a loved place than from nature’s inherent qualities
How does nature restore us ? 3. Mental fatigue approach (Rachel & Stephan Kaplan) • believes that nature is inherently fascinating it compels our involuntary attention nature itself is the cause of nature’s restorative abilities. • Nature provides a setting for non-taxing involuntary attention & we are gradually refreshed by being there. 4. Evolutionary/ biophilia approach (Roger Ulrich et al.) • Genetically, humans are much more adapted to natural than built settings human have evolved for two or three million years in natural environments
ENVIRONMENTALHAZARD • Environmental hazards large magnitude events • Natural Hazard • Technological Hazards
Natural Hazards • Often unpredictable & allow little or no preparation, that cause death or injury to many people, destroy much property, and disrupt many social and economic activities. • Examples: • Flood, fire, storm, earthquake, heat or cold wave, etc.
Technological Hazards • Technological hazards result from human works • Examples: Nuclear plant accidents, radio active or chemical spills and see pages, nuclear bombs, falling space debris, large explosions, floods due to broken dams, etc
Supportive Hospitals • Hospitals should be psychologically supportive. To the extent that architecture can facilitate healing • The building should not cause patients any further stress than they already must face. For example, it should not :- • Be crowded or noisy, • Be difficult to find one’s way, • spread noxious air, • have bad lighting, etc. • It should provide exposure to physical features of the environment that reduce stress
What is Management? • Managing refers to: • The rate and quality of an individual’s use of natural resources, including manufactured products made from natural resources. • The rate of this process is also quantifiable
Aspects to consider in Resource management • What available resources do we have? • How much do we need to utilize:- • In terms of quantity • In terms of quality • Who will be doing the managing?
Who will be doing the managing • At Macro level /societal level • Much environmental management is done by the governments, corporations, and other organizations • At the microlevel • Environmental psychologists are more interested in the resource management behavior of individuals and small groups resource management
As a manager • We monitor our personal use of resources • Observe the effects that our usage has on the environment • Are aware of the usage patterns of other individuals
Resource Management as a common/social dilemma • Self-Interest versus the Public Interest • The defining characteristics of a social dilemma are: (1) each participant receives more (or is penalized less) for a self-interest choice than for a public-interest choice (2) the participants as a group benefit more if they all choose to act in the public interest than if they all choose to act in self-interest • In some social dilemmas, frequent defections result in the destruction of the resource
What influences public-interest resource management? 1. The resource Is it important to the participants? Is it nearly depleted or relatively plentiful? • Three characteristics of the resource:- • As the importance or value of the resource increases, the rate of cooperation decreases • Abundance resources mean there is no dilemma • Resource certainty is a factor in cooperation 2. The participants as individuals • Are they old or young? Experienced or not? Do they hold cooperative values or not?
What influences public-interest resource management? (con’t) 3. The participants as group members • How many are there? Do they trust or know each other? Are they friends or strangers? 4. Structure of the dilemma • What are relatively payoffs for cooperation and defection? May the participants communicate with one another? Are their choices made public? Are they told something about the nature of social dilemmas or left to their own ability to understand? Is there a leader or not?
Theories of Social Dilemma • Biosocial Theories 2. Tragic-Choice Theory • Social-Trap & Reinforcement Theories (John Platt’s) 4. Limited Processing Theory 5. Structural/Goal Expectation Theory 6. Three-Motive Theory
Theories of Social Dilemma • Biosocial Theories • behavior in the commons is largely a function of the genetic or biological makeup of humans
Theories of Social Dilemma • Tragic-Choice Theory • Inequality & the resulting scarcity & suffering is natural and impossible to change • Scarcity originates in a first-order determination a conscious decision not to produce as much as could be produced. • The decisions to create scarcity are followed by second-order determinations how to distribute the insufficient supply of goods
Theories of Social Dilemma • Social-Trap & Reinforcement Theories (John Platt’s) • Based on reinforcement Many of us reward ourselves too immediately • E.g., if you are holding a fast-food package and do not see a trash can nearby, it is immediately rewarding to litter (your hands are free of a burden) when you or others repeatedly litter, the whole area eventually is visually ruined by litter.
Theories of Social Dilemma • Limited Processing Theory • In many situations Individuals do not behave in a rational manner. • There are two basic modes of nonrationality: • People sometimes simply do not pay much attention to what they are doing. • People may act non-rationally even when they understand or aware.
Theories of Social Dilemma 5. Structural/Goal Expectation Theory • Certain set of conditions is required for cooperation to occur
Theories of Social Dilemma • Three-Motive Theory • Decision made are based on three motives • self-interest • the desire to act responsibly • and conformity
Air Pollution Myths about Air Pollution • Air pollution is a big-city problem • Air pollution is a relatively new problem • Air pollution is an outdoor phenomenon • Air pollution may affect health but not behavior • Air pollution is caused by factories, not people • Incineration destroys toxins
Effect of Air Pollutions on: • Behavior • Cognitive performance
Effect of Air Pollutions on: Behavior • Common air pollutants affect the range of our behavior, basic psychological processes, and, perhaps, attraction, aggression & schizophrenia.
Effect of Air Pollutions on: Cognitive performance • The excessive levels of carbon monoxide negatively affect such basic cognitive activities as reaction time and arithmetic ability
Why public outcries against air pollution have not been louder? • For e.g., in preparation for the 1984 Olympics, Los Angeles tried to implement strict controls in an attempt to improve its Smog City image. But why did it take an event such as the Olympics for the city to implement the controls? There are two general answers: • ADAPTATION • PERCEIVED COSTS.
Reason why outcrys against air pollution often put on hold? There are two general reasons: • ADAPTATION • Myth --> Human can get use to any situation • Actually, because air pollution increases gradually, so it allows time for our eyes to get use to the situation. • PERCEIVED COSTS • Too expensive
There are two forms of resource recovery: • Recycling • occurs when waste material is reuse for its original purpose e.g: Recycle plastic bag, aluminium can • Reclamation • occurs when the waste material is processed to create a different product
How to encourage recycling? • Educate, Prompt & Reward • Increasing awareness through speeches • Personal communication • Pamphlets • Remind people to recycle with signs and labeled receptacles works • Positive reinforcement works • Block leaders to locate individuals on each block who might encourage their neighbors to recycle • Commitment and Feedback: asking people to make a commitment to recycle & giving posted feedback once per month about the actual amount they had recycled • Laws Integrated approaches
Factors that play important roles in recycling • How much awareness and information people have about recycling. • Who the potential recycler is, in demographic terms • How convenient recycling is • The economic payoff • Attitudes toward recycling • Local norms about recycling • The operating policies of the recycling agency
GROUP TASK 1. Setiap group harus bertindak sebagai Resource Manager; • Di peringkat makro • Di peringkat mikro. • Fikirkan/pilih satu tajuk (aspek) berhubung dengan alam sekitar yang kumpulan anda ingin selesaikan. Fikirkan apakah langkah-langkah yang anda perlu lakukan untuk memperbaiki keadaan tersebut. 2. Setiap kumpulan harus membawa dua jenis barang yang telah melalui proses recycling dan reclaimation