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  1. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia • Prince Norah bint Abdul Rahman University • College of Computer Since and Information System • CS240 Introduction T.NajahAl_Subaie

  2. CS240 Instructor: Najah AL-Subaie Course URL: Text Book: • C++ How to Program, DETITEL & DEITEL, eighth Edition • C++ Without Fear A Biggener's Guide That Makes You Feel Smart, Brian Overland

  3. Course Syllabus

  4. Course Objectives • Learn data types, control structures, functions, and arrays. • Learn algorithms and problem-solving. • Learn analysis of problems using structured programming. • Learn program correctness and verification. • Learn the mechanics of running, testing, and debugging

  5. Grading • 2 Midterms : 25% • Project: 5% • Lab work : 10% • Final exam: 40% • Final lab: 20% • Bonus: +5 Marks (Pop quizzes)

  6. Our first Question !! • What are the differences between hardware and software?!! • Computer hardware is any physical device (e.g. the computer monitor), something that you are able to touch and software (e.g. Internet browser) is a collection of instructions and code installed into the computer and cannot be touched. • What is the relation between SW and HW?? • Software (Instruction) controls hardware (computer).

  7. Programming Languages • Machine Language • The only language computer directly understands • Generally consists of 0s and 1s: • It is difficult to understand by humans. • To calculate wages= rates * hours in machine language: • 100100 010001 // Load • 100110 010010 //Multiply • 100010 010011 //Store

  8. Programming Languages • Assembly language • English-like abbreviations to represent computer operations. • Clearer to humans. • Incomprehensible to computers. • Assemblers : convert program to machine language.

  9. Programming Languages • High-level language • Similar to everyday language. • Uses common mathematical notations. • Clearer to humans. • Incomprehensible to computers. • (compilers): convert program to machine language. • The equation: wages= rate * hours written in C++: Wages=rate * hours;

  10. Basics of C++ Environment • C++ programs typically go through six phases to be executed. • Edit: Programmer types a C++ program. • Preprocess: e.g. include other text files to be compiled. • Compile: translate the C++ program into machine language code. • Link: links the code with the code for the missing functions. • Load: load the executable code on memory. • Execute: CPU executes the program one instruction at time.

  11. Structure of a program Output

  12. Structure of a Program Cont. // my first program in C++ • This is a comment line. • All lines beginning with two slash signs (//) are considered comments and do not have any effect on the behavior of the program. • The programmer can use them to include short explanations or observations within the source code itself. • In this case, the line is a brief description of what our program is.

  13. Structure of a Program Cont. #include <iostream> • Lines beginning with a hash sign (#) are directives for the preprocessor. • The directive #include <iostream> tells the preprocessor to include the iostream standard file. • This specific file (iostream) includes the declarations of the basic standard input-output library in C++,

  14. Structure of a Program Cont. using namespace std; • All the elements of the standard C++ library are declared within what is called a namespace, the namespace with the name std. • So in order to access its functionality we declare with this expression that we will be using these entities. This line is very frequent in C++ programs that use the standard library.

  15. Structure of a Program Cont. int main () • This line corresponds to the beginning of the definition of the main function. • The main function is the point by where all C++ programs start their execution. • int in the left, indicates that main “return” an integer. • The word main is followed in the code by a pair of parentheses (). • Right after these parentheses we can find the body of the main function enclosed in braces {}. What is contained within these braces is what the function does when it is executed.

  16. Structure of a Program Cont. cout << "Hello World!"; • This line is a C++ statement. • A statement is a simple or compound expression. • cout is the name of the standard output stream in C++. • The meaning of this statement is to print “ Hello World!” on the screen. • The semicolon (;) is used to mark the end of the statement. • Semicolon must be included at the end of all expression statements in all C++ .

  17. Structure of a Program Cont. return 0; • The return statement causes the main function to finish. • It indicate that the program ended successfully.