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Poultry and Game

Poultry and Game

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Poultry and Game

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  1. Poultry and Game Chapter 14

  2. Objectives • Distinguish between poultry and feathered game • Describe how game differs from domesticated animals • Explain poultry inspection and grading • Summarize the quality factors for carcasses and parts

  3. Objectives (cont’d.) • Outline the different categories of chicken • List several species of furred and feathered game • Differentiate between hare and rabbit

  4. Poultry • Birds have been domesticated for over 4,000 years • Poultry • Has a high protein content • Is easier to raise and transport than cows and pigs • Is considered a staple on most menus

  5. Buying and Storing • Available from a variety of sources • Broadline distributors to local merchants • Know your supplier and ensure their sanitary practices • Poultry should be delivered at freezing for fresh products or hard frozen • Inspect for signs of temperature abuse

  6. Buying and Storing (cont’d.) • Poultry has a very short shelf life • Use fresh product within three days • HACCP guidelines • Store raw, unprepped product under raw, prepped product • Cooked product should be stored on top • Or use separate coolers for raw and cooked

  7. Federal Poultry Inspection and Grading • The USDA inspects all poultry before and after the kill • Inspection is mandatory but grading is voluntary • There are three retail grades and two procurement grades for poultry

  8. Federal Poultry Inspection and Grading (cont’d.) • Quality factors for carcasses and parts • Conformation (appearance or shape) • Fleshing (amount of flesh on the bird) • Fat covering • Pinfeathers • Exposed cuts, tears and broken bones • Skin discoloration, blemishes, and bruises

  9. Types of Poultry Eligible for Grading • Types of poultry that may be graded • Chicken, turkey, duck, geese, and guinea • Chickens produce two major protein sources: eggs and meat • Many different forms and packaging styles • Turkey is popular as a deli meat and in whole bird roasters

  10. Feathered Game • Refers to the remaining birds used in food service applications • Wild turkey, goose, pheasant, duck, partridge, quail, and woodcock • Must be farm-raised (includes free range) • Wild birds may not be sold in the U.S.

  11. Buying and Storing • Game birds are available whole or precut into pieces • Fresh, frozen, or canned (smaller birds) • Factors affecting quality • Age of the bird and manner of slaughter and packaging • Should have springy skin and no “off” odor

  12. Duck • Very popular in European countries • Roughly eight species of duck available for food service • Various forms available • Broiler, fryer, or roaster duckling • Mature duck

  13. Goose • Popular in Europe and in the U.S. on Christmas and New Year’s • Flesh (including the breast) is darker than poultry • Taste is gamier and has more fat than duck • Available as young or mature goose

  14. Guinea • Smaller birds with a gamey taste • Originated in Africa • Lean meat • Sold as whole birds • Available as young or mature guinea

  15. Partridge • Game bird that is available in several regions of the world • Available frozen • Not native to U.S. • Very plump; has white gamey flesh and white meat • Prepared by roasting or broiling

  16. Pheasant • Mild flavored bird • Prepared roasted, stewed, or braised • Raised on farms • Available frozen, or fresh in some locales • Most weigh between 1½ – 2¼ lb • Sold as a dish for two people

  17. Pigeon • Small bird with large breasts • Also known as a dove • Available from farms • Comes in two forms • Squab: young bird with extra tender meat • Pigeon: older bird with tougher flesh

  18. Quail • Related to the pheasant • Weighs 3 to 7 ounces in total • Tender enough to be grilled or cooked with dry heat • May be stuffed • Sold whole or in boneless quarters

  19. Furred Game • Wild animals that are rarely available from commercial wholesalers • Game meat has dark color and strong taste • Age of animal and cut of the meat are determining factors when choosing cooking methods

  20. Buying and Storing • Available from specialty wholesalers during hunting season; also from farms • Purchase only from licensed, inspected purveyors • Before purchasing, find out animal age, treatment, and how long it was hung before processing

  21. Antelope • Animal is the size of a large deer • Raised on farms • Similar to deer meat • Normally cooked using recipes and techniques for deer meat

  22. Wild Boar • Wild cousin of domesticated pigs • Only available in autumn • Farm boar available year-round • Stronger flavor than pork • Can be used in any recipe calling for pork or venison • Sold as a young or mature animal

  23. Buffalo (Bison/American Buffalo) • Large animal native to the United States • Meat is very lean and nutritious • Lower in cholesterol, fat, and calories than beef or chicken • Most buffalo is farm raised today • Tastes like beef, but richer and sweeter

  24. Beefalo • Cross between buffalo and domesticated cattle • Looks and tastes more like beef than buffalo • Meat is very lean and dark with slightly stronger flavor than beef • Can be cooked using any beef recipe • Available through specialty retailers

  25. Deer (Venison) • Venison is any meat from moose, elk, red-tailed deer, or white-tailed deer • Available from wild sources and farm-raised animals • Meat is dark red, leaner than beef with almost no marbling • Available in loin, leg, and rack cuts

  26. Hare and Rabbits • Rabbits are available from wild or farm-raised sources • Hare can weigh up to 14 pounds • Rabbits usually between 3 and 5 pounds • Hare has darker meat than rabbit, and must be marinated • Rabbit is available whole or in cuts

  27. Summary • The most popular forms of poultry are chicken and turkey • Fresh poultry has a short shelf life • Poultry inspection is mandatory, and may also be graded • There are various quality factors that affect the grading

  28. Summary (cont’d.) • Types of feathered game include duck, goose, pheasant, quail, guinea, partridge, and pigeon • Types of furred game include deer, antelope, buffalo, beefalo, wild boar, rabbit, and hare • Know your supplier when buying game