FEEDING ANIMALS AGRISCIENCE/TECHNOLOGY Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office July, 2002
REASONS WHY ANIMALS NEED FEED • MAINTENANCE • GROWTH • REPRODUCTION • LACTATION • WORKING • OTHER PRODUCTS AND USES
WAYS ANIMALS USE NUTRIENTS TO MAINTAIN THEMSELVES • Used to keep the body warm • Replace old cells • Run the internal organs • For body movement
SIX TYPES OF MATERIALS THAT PROVIDE NUTRIENTS • CARBOHYDRATES: Major sources are corn, oats, hay, soybean oil meal and grain sorghum. • FATS: Meat scraps, tankage, cottonseed and fish meal are examples. • PROTEIN: Tankage, soybean meal, legume hay, blood meal, feather meal, fish meal and skim milk.
TYPES OF MATERIALS (CONT.) • MINERALS: Eighteen minerals are needed by animals;six are macrominerals. Includes calcium, salt, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium and sulfur. • VITAMINS: Vitamins A,D, and the B vitamins are most important in animals. • WATER: Most important of all nutrients. A market hog is 40% water; newborn calf is 70% water.
TWO GENERAL CLASSES OF FEEDSTUFFS • ROUGHAGES: Feedstuffs that are high in fiber and low in energy. • Examples include hay, green pasture grasses and legumes and silage. • CONCENTRATES: Feed that are low in fiber and high in energy. • Examples are corn, oats, wheat, meat scraps, blood meal, soybean meal and urea.
DIGESTIBLE NUTRIENT • A digestible nutrient is the part of a feedstuff that can be digested, or broken down. • Fiber in roughage is not easily digested. • Ruminants and horses are efficient users of roughage.
TERMS • RATION: The total amount of feed an animal gets in a 24 hour period. • BALANCED RATION: A ration that provides all of the nutrients needed by the animal in the right amount and proportion. • DIET: Type and amount of feed and water an animal eats.
THREE TYPES OF ROUGHAGE FOR ANIMALS • PASTURE- Land where grasses and other plants grow for animals to graze. • HAY- Made of the leaves and stems of plants that have been cut and dried for feed. • SILAGE- Made from cut green plants by chopping them into small pieces and placing the “chop” in a silo.
EXAMPLES OF GRAIN CONCENTRATES • Grains are high in TDN but do not provide a balanced ration. • Examples include corn, oats, wheat and grain sorghum. • Corn is the most widely used grain.
SOURCES OF PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS • Protein supplements are high in TDN and high in protein. • Three types: • Animal - meat scraps and tankage, blood meal, fish meal, and skim milk. • Plant- soybean oil meal, cotton seed meal and various grain by-products. • Synthetic- Urea, molasses, rice hulls, and citrus pulp treated with ammonia.
FEED ADDITIVES • Placed in feed while it is being manufactured to preserve it and enhance growth of the animals. • Medications • Wormers • Marketing enhancement • Antioxidants
IMPLANTS AND INJECTIONS • Implants involve placing solid materials under the skin. • Injections involve using hypodermic needles and syringes to get a substance into the body system of an animal. • Examples are BST to increase milk production in dairy cows and fish may be injected to encourage spawning.
FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN SELECTING FEED FOR ANIMALS • NUTRIENT CONTENT • PALATABILITY • FREE OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS • VARIETY • BULKINESS • COST • FEED STORAGE
THREE FORMS IN WHICH ROUGHAGE IS FED • BALES • LOOSE CHOP • PELLETS AND WAFERS
WAYS CONCENTRATES ARE MADE INTO FORMS OF FEED • CRACKING AND ROLLING • GRINDING • EXTRUDING
WAYS SUPPLEMENTS ARE PREPARED • BLOCKS- Salt or mineral block • LIQUIDS- Molasses • MIXES- Salt, protein sources and other materials