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Unit One Fighting with the Force of Nature. I. Lead-in Questions. 1. Man and nature, which do you think is more powerful? 2. List some examples on the following cases: Man conquers nature: Nature destroys man: Harmonious co-existence between man and nature:
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Unit One Fighting with the Force of Nature
1. Man and nature, which do you think is more powerful? 2. List some examples on the following cases: Man conquers nature: Nature destroys man: Harmonious co-existence between man and nature: 3. Picture an ideal relationship between man and nature
II. Cultural Notes 1. Background Information 2. Napoleon Bonaparte
II. Cultural Notes 3.the Battle of Waterloo 4. Adolf Hitler 5. Joseph Stalin
Background Information: Throughout the history of mankind, there have been many conquerors. Chengis Khan spent his entire life conquering neighboring peoples and expanding the Mongolian Empire. Many Roman Emperors did the same for the Roman empire — so much so that at one time they ruled modern-day Great Britain. Both the Mongolian and Roman Empires had their rise and fall in the distant past. Yet if we want to examine conquerors, there is no need to go back that far. In 1812, Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Russia in a war of conquest. More than a century later, Adolf Hitler launched a massive military campaign against the Soviet Union.
Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821): Emperor of the French, who consolidated and institutional¬ized many reforms of the French Revolution. One of the greatest military commanders of all time, he conquered the larger part of Europe. During 1802-1815 Napoleon tried to gain control of the whole of Europe. He had great success against all his enemies except Britain, whose navy under Nelson defeated the French navy at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, and whose army fought the Peninsular War against him from 1808 to 1814, making him weaker in his other campaigns.
Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821): In 1812 Napoleon lost half a million men when he invaded Russia in winter, and in 1814 the British, Russians, Prussians and Austrians entered Paris. They sent Napoleon to rule the island of Elba in the Mediterranean, but he collected an army around him and returned to Paris. He was soon defeated again, at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, and was sent to the island of St Helena in the south Atlantic, where he died in 1821.
the Battle of Waterloo: Final and decisive action of the Napoleonic Wars, that effectively ended French domination of the European continent and brought about drastic changes in the political boundaries and the power balance of Europe. Fought on June 18, 1815, near Waterloo, in what is now Belgium, the battle ranks as a great turning point in modern history.
Adolf Hitler (1889-1945): German political and military leader and one of the 20th century’s most powerful dictators. Hitler converted Germany into a fully militarized society and launched World War II in 1939. He made anti-Semitism a keystone of his propaganda and policies and built the Nazi Party into a mass movement. He hoped to conquer the entire world, and for a time dominated most of Europe and much of North Africa. He instituted sterilization and euthanasia measures to enforce his idea of racial purity among the German people and slaughtered millions of Jews, Sinti and Roma (Gypsies), Slavic peoples, and many others, all of whom he considered inferior.
Joseph Stalin (1879-1953): General secretary of the Communist Party of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (1922 - 1953) and chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1941-1953). Under his leadership the USSR was built into a modern economic and military power that repelled Hitler’s armies in World War II and rivaled the United States during the Cold War period.
Words 1. launch v. 1）to send( a modern or instrument) into the sky or space, esp. with a rocket;发射 eg: They have launched a spaceship. 他们发射了一艘宇宙飞船。 We will launch the moon rocket next week. 下星期，我们将发射月球火箭。
Words 2）to begin ( an activity, plan, or way of life) 开始，发起 eg: Launch an enterprise/ a new business/a strike/ protest/ a campaign/attack 开创企业/开始新事业/进行罢工/进行抗议/开始运动/发动进攻 This computer company launched a new product last week. 这家电脑公司上周推出一种新产品。
Words 2. campaign n. 1) a connected set of military actions forming a separate part of a war战役 eg: A military campaign has to be carefully planned out. 一场战役必须经过周密的部署。 scored important victories early in the campaign 战役初期就获得重大胜利
Words 2) a connected set of actions intended to obtain a particular result, esp. in politics or business运动 eg: an advertising campaign for a new product 一项旨在推出新产品的广告计划 a candidate's political campaign. 一项候选人的政治计划
Words 3. border n. the dividing line between two countries边境 eg: We dwell on the border of our country. 我们住在边疆。 The crossed the border by greasing the palms of border guards. 他们买通边防警卫，偷渡国境
Words v. 1) to share a border with接壤 eg: China borders on Korea in the east. 中国东邻朝鲜。 France borders Germany along parts of the Rhine. 法国沿莱茵河部分河段与德国接壤。
Words 2) to be very much alike近乎，近于 eg: Their respect for him borders on/upon reverence. 他们对他的尊敬近于崇拜。 His determination to have my company bordered on violence. 他硬要我陪着他，差不多要动武了。
Words 4. efficient adj. working well, quickly, and without waste有效率的，能干的 eg: She is an efficient manageress. 她是个有能力的经理。 The manager compliments the staff on their efficient service. 经理对员工的高效服务表示称赞。
Words 5.conquest n. the act of conquering征服 eg: In process of time, Rome became a great empire by conquest. 随着时间的推移，罗马通过征服异邦而成了一个大帝国 The conquest of this rare disease has always been her aim. 征服这种罕见的疾病一直是她奋斗的目标。
Words 6.retreat v. move back or withdraw when faced with danger or difficulty. 撤退 eg: After a fierce battle, the troops retreated southward. 一场激战过后，部队向南方撤退。 We adopted the following strategies: when the enemy advances, we retreat; when they retreat, we pursue. (Chairman Mao) 我们采取的政策是：敌进我退，敌退我追。
Words n. a place into which one can go for peace or safety 隐退处，静居处，休养所 eg: He lives in a quiet retreat. 他住在一个僻静的地方。 We have found ourselves a beautiful exurban retreat. 我们已在城市远郊找到一处美丽的安静之地。
Words 7.engage v. 1) to arrange to employ someone雇佣 eg: He is engaged at a bank. 他受雇于一家银行。 They engaged a cook for the summer. 那个夏天他们雇了一个厨子。
Words 2) to attract and keep (the interest and attention) of someone吸引；占用(时间、精力等) eg: The book engaged my full attention. 这本书把我完全吸引住了。 Housework engages much of her time. 家事占用她很多时间。 3) to take part in esp. followed by “in”从事，进行，忙于 eg: He was busily engaged in painting the furniture. 他忙于油漆家具。 It is inappropriate for him to engage in this activity. 他从事这一活动是不合适的。
Words 8.crucial adj. of deciding importance重大的，至关重要的 eg: A crucial moment in his career. 他的生涯中的关键时刻。 The most crucial factor now is our own confidence. 现在最关键的，就是我们自己的信心问题。
Words 9. minus prep. 1) made less by 减去 eg: 20 minus 10 is/leaves/equals 10. 20减去10 等于10. Two plus one is not the same as two minus one. 2加1和2减1不一样。
Words 2) being the stated degrees below the freezing point of water;零下 eg: Tomorrow’s temperature will be as low as minus 10 degrees centigrade. 明天气温要低于零下10度。 But they are always warm, even when it's minus thirty degrees outside. 室外零下30度，但她们全身总是很温暖。
Words 10. stroke n. 1) a hit, esp. with a weapon 一击 eg: He broke the lock with one stroke of the hammer. 他一锤就把锁砸坏了 An oak is not felled at one stroke. 万事不能一蹴而就。
Words 2) an occasion when a blood tube in the brain suddenly bursts or is blocked which damages the brain and can cause loss of the ability to move 中风 eg: He’s had a stroke. 他中风了。 She had a stroke and was unable to walk again. 她中风后再也不能走路了。
Words 11. alliance n. (with, between) a close agreement or connection made between countries, groups, families, etc. for a shared purpose or for the protection of their interests联盟 eg: The two countries entered into/formed defensive alliance. 两国缔结了攻守同盟。 NATO is considered as the most powerful military alliance in modern history. 北约被认为是当代历史上最大的军事联盟。
Words 12.render v. 1) cause sb/sth to be in a specified position使处于,使成为 eg: Hundreds of people were rendered homeless by earthquake. 地震造成无数人无家可归。 The drug will render the tiger harmless. 这种药会使老虎无力为害。
Words 2) translate; 翻译 eg: The sentence cannot be literally rendered. 这个句子不能直译。 Poetry can never be adequately rendered in another language. 诗从来不能充分等质地译成另外一种语言。 3) to give or propose提出，提供 eg: She needed him to hear her out and render advice. 她需要他把话听完并提出建议。 We are ready to render them assistance. 我们乐意援助他们。
Words 13. casualty n. a person who is killed or injured in war or in accident.(casualties)伤亡人员；死伤者 eg: Our regiment suffered heavy casualties. 我团伤亡惨重。 There were dozens of casualties in the train crash. 在那次火车撞车事故中有数十人伤亡。
Words 14. reckon v. count, consider, think认为 eg: Many people reckon him to be a great basketball player. 很多人都认为他是伟大的篮球运动员。 All these problems had to be reckoned with as they arose. 所有这些问题，在它们一出现时，就必须予以解决。
Phrases 1. be/get bogged down:be unable to make progress陷入泥潭，不能前进 eg: The car got bogged down in the mud. 车陷进了淤泥里。 We were bogged down with a lot of work. 我们被一大堆工作拖住了。
Phrases 2. press on/ahead: continue doing sth. In spite of difficulties.继续进行 eg: Our school authorities are keen to press on with educational reform. 学校当局热切推进教育改革。 We must press on with the project without wasting time. 我们要不失时机地加紧进行这项工程。
Phrases 3. bide one’s time: wait patiently for a chance 等待时机 eg: He is biding his time for a promotion. 他正在等待升职的有利时机。 If we bide our time the chance will come. 只要我们等待时机，总会有希望的。
Phrases 4. drag on: move slowly and with effort; continue endlessly and tediously缓慢费力地走，拖延 eg: How much longer is the meeting going to drag on? 这会还得拖到什么时候啊？ The case has already dragged on for one year. 这个案子已经拖了一年了。
Phrases 5. at the cost of：with the loss of以…为代价 eg: The local government developed its economy but at the cost of environment. 地方政府以环境受损为代价发展经济。 He saved the lives of the children at the cost of his own. 他牺牲了自己的生命，却救活了孩子们。
Phrases 6. catch sb off guard: take sb by surprise趁某人不备，使某人措不及防 eg: The invitation to his wedding caught me off guard. 他邀请我参加婚礼，让我备感意外。 The manager didn’t know what to say. It was clear that my question had caught him off guard. 经理不知说什么，很显然他对我的问题根本没有准备。/我的问题让他措不及防。
Phrases 7. bring to a halt=bring a halt to: to stop 使停止 eg: We were brought a halt by a storm. 我们被暴风雨阻止了。 Work was brought to a halt when the machine broke down. 机器出了毛病, 工作便停顿下来。
Phrases 8. take its/a toll: cause damage, injuries or deaths造成损失，伤亡等 eg: The famine took a toll of 3,000,000 lives. 饥荒夺取了三百万人的性命。 His hard work has taken its toll on his stomach. 艰苦的工作对他的胃造成了危害。
In some cases, the forces of nature are too powerful to be resisted. In 1812, Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Russian in a war of conquest. More than a century later, Adolf Hitler launched a massive military campaign against the Soviet Union. Because the Russian winter, which is called the icy defender, came to the aid of the Soviet soldiers, both of the conquerors suffered great losses. When Napoleon and Hitler finally realized their arrogance, it was already too late.
1) The Russian winter again came to the aid of the Soviet soldiers. • The Russian winter at last helped the Soviet soldiers to fight off their enemy.
2) The loss of the battles for Stalingrad finally turned the tide against Hitler. • In Hitler’s Russian campaign, the battle for Stalingrad was a turning point, from which German troops became weak and was at a dilemma.