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What Makes a Bird a Bird?. A [brief!] introduction to the wonderful world of Avian Biology. Birds all have the same basic architecture. Bird Basics 101:. Birds are all Tetrapods Bipedal Warm-blooded. Birds all have the same basic “parts”.
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What Makes a Bird a Bird? A [brief!] introduction to the wonderful world of Avian Biology
Bird Basics 101: Birds are all Tetrapods Bipedal Warm-blooded
Evolution of Birds Bird have descended from bipedal, carnivorous reptilian-like dinosaurs that lived in the Jurassic period approximately 150 millions years ago. Archaeopteryx
Classification of Birds Birds are scientifically classified as follows: Kingdom - Animalia (self-mobile, take in food) Phylum - Chordata (presence of a noto-chord) Subphylum - Vertebrata (have a backbone)
Class - Aves It’s All About Flight! “Warm-blooded,” with three major distinguishing characteristics: • Feathers - unique to birds • Hard-shelled Eggs - not like reptile eggs • Hollow Bones - strong, hollow and with internal support Members of the class Aves are placed into more than 2 dozen orders, such as the Passeriformes (perching birds). The orders are divided into approximately 160 families.The next 2 groups, genus and species are combined to give the bird's scientific name. No other creature in the animal world may share that combination of names. There are more than 9000 species of birds in the world.
Class - Aves It’s All About Flight! FEATHERS • Purpose(s) - Insulation and Protection; Mate selection; Flight • Development - Epidermal; Molting • Structure - Regular, tightly complex, “dead cells”
Feather Types and Structure Vaned/Contour Down Semiplume Filoplume Bristle Powder Down
Class - Aves It’s All About Flight! Hard-Shelled Eggs & Reproduction • Protection • Gas Exchange • Yolks!
Class - Aves It’s All About Flight! Bones/Skeletal Structure • Light and Rigid • Lacking heavy parts
Class - Aves It’s All About Flight! Other Characteristics Respiration • Efficiency! • Unique Structures
Class - Aves Vision • Highly developed • Color • Large % of mass • Wide variety of “location”
Class - Aves HOFI - open trees and loose bushes DEJU- dense shrubs and understory Songs & Communication DOWO - dense woody trees ANHU - open areas between dense shrubs • Highly developed & complex • Both learned and innate • Species specific • Habitat specific • Unique structure NOMO - treetops and loose bushes AMCO - treetops and open areas; for large groups CAGO - open, windy areas, over water; for large groups
Class - Aves And of course… FLIGHT! • Reducing weight and increasing power • Every system and structure related