A companioning experiment of the decision-making process to decentralized planning Using MAS for Natural Resources Management :A test operation in the valley of the Senegal river, combining GIS, role playing games and MAS.
Simulation and adaptive management : an approach • Role games and multi-agent systems : a common representation • to increase knowledge on the behaviour, • to give back the model to the actors and validate it, • to be able to simulate scenarios • Tests : • irrigated scheme, • space allocation between farmers and herders, • negotiation between forest manager and herder
Context : Land use in Senegal • Decentralisation -> Rural Councils have to manage the resources • Problems of allocation of space : multiple uses of the same space (agriculture-grazing)
Context : Land use in Senegal • The valley of the Senegal river, • deeply modified by hydraulic buildings • disturbed by the dryness's • A strictly hydro-agricultural policy always operating (no complementarity between the various activities). • A theoretically complete but not very effective decentralization (assimilation; transfer of competence; supports for communities) • A confusion of the roles between concerned institutions (technical services, local councils, civil company, NGO)
Stakes • Provide to the Local Communities the knowledge and the capacity to act. • Obtain the gratitude and the support by all the institutional actors of the actions of the Rural Councils. • Facilitate for the populations, the knowledge, the follow-up and the control of this management. • Build a reproducible method to introduce a real transfer of competence for the management of territory.
Step: An "adapted" technical support • Let Local Communities choose internally and at their rhythm, the rules for the resources uses and the investment projects. • Do not participate in the strategic choices: let the local leaders choose. • Give the information and the knowledge • Example: • the « SelfCormas » experiment • Two years process (GIS, workshops,etc.)
Land-use workshops • Day 1: Identification and characterization • Definition of resources and space, • Criteria of satisfaction for every type of use • Rules, behavior, • A shared spatial representation • Day 2: Role game, problems and scenarios • According to discussed elements of the previous day • Identification of the problems and propositions of scenarios • Day 3: Simulations and tests • Simulations of the proposed scenarios • Test of new scenarios
Farmer : - raining season crops on - dry season crops near permanent water Herder: - distance to water < 5km - herd does not cross the crops - better grazing areas = crops residuals and Agents’ behaviour
Outputs: Facilitate discussions • Facilitate discussions on : • Ngnith village : new water points or new channels, access rules to the water • Nboudoum village : necessity of grazing management (technical expertise), access to a park • Ndiaye village : positive impact of agricultural diversification • Facilitate discussions in • conflict situations • Taboo objects or phenomenon
Key lessons • Model as a common representation (researchers, actors, politicians) • Model as mediator object • KISS • Research on Adaptive (evolving) models for adaptive management http://www.commod.org
Experiments • Irrigated schemes in Senegal [Barreteau] • Land-use allocation between cropping and breeding in Senegal [d’Aquino], • Negotiations between a shepherd and a forester in a mediterranean forest [Etienne], • Discussions between foresters, shepherds and national park rangers to manage pine encroachment in the Mejan Causse (South of France) [Etienne], • Management of agricultural land in North Vietnam [Boissau] • Local management of phytogenetics resources in Madagascar [Aubert]
ComMod : a Companion Modelling Approach • to tackle issues regarding decision processes, common property, co-ordinationamong actors, etc. • An approach, which should be understood as a scientific posture morethan a modelling handbook. • Modelling is merely an intermediary object (Vinck1999) facilitating our collective and interdisciplinarythought. • Modelling activities are involved in the development process, and our preferred way to test and to question theories.
Knowledge increase MODELLING Understand EVALUATE ComMod : a Companion Modelling Approach • Use of modelling approach in two specific contexts : • Standard: the production of knowledge on some complex systems, (To be voluntarily and directly subjected to refutation) • The importance given to field work leads to expectations regarding tangible effects: • the support to collective decision-making processes • three kinds of the outputs : the modification of perceptions, of behaviours, or of actions Corroboration / refutation