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Issues with Emerging Contaminants in Water

Issues with Emerging Contaminants in Water

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Issues with Emerging Contaminants in Water

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  1. Issues with Emerging Contaminants in Water

  2. What are “emerging contaminants”? • PPCPs and EDCs • Pharmaceuticals • Personal Care Products • Endocrine Disrupting Compounds • Emerging emerging contaminants?

  3. Pharmaceuticals • Human and veterinary substances taken in response to disease/maladies. • Cure disease • Alleviate disease associated symptoms • Prevent disease • “The human impulse for a cure runs quite deep, and our first instinct whenever we feel sick or heading toward sickness is to medicate.” • Jjemba, 2008

  4. Personal Care Products • Compounds used in our daily lives • Soaps, detergents, perfumes, aftershaves • Cleaning agents, disinfectants, sprays, deodorants • Bug sprays, sunscreens • Products are typically associated with hygiene

  5. Endocrine Disrupting Compounds • Disrupt normal function of the endocrine system • Mimic hormones; agonize or antagonize hormone activity, synthesis, or metabolism; modify hormone receptors • Active at very low levels • Concern about additive or synergistic effects caused by mixtures of EDCs • Synthetic Estrogens • Ethinyl Estradiol, bisphenol-A • Synthetic Androgens • 90% of US cattle receive growth hormone implants • Synthetic androgens remain environmentally active for months

  6. Emerging, emerging contaminants • What’s next? • Technology will always get better • New products • New ways to find chemicals at lower concentrations • NDMA found in beer by accident • EDC activity of bisphenol-A (BPA) found by accident • Green revolution dumped millions of tons of pesticides and herbicides into the environment, but also created enough food for billions of people!!!

  7. A Brief History of “Emerging” Contaminants

  8. Developments in Industrial Microbiology - 1970

  9. EDC StoriesLake Mead Feminized Carp • Found vitellogenin in male carp of Las Vegas wash and Bay in Lake Mead • Egg producing protein • Elevated levels in female fish • Found elevated levels of several potential EDCs • EthinylEstradiol • Las Vegas wastewater treatment plant outfall "Synthetic Organic Compounds and Carp Endocrinology and Histology, Las Vegas Wash and Las Vegas and Callville Bays of Lake Mead, Nevada, 1992 and 1995, " by Hugh E. Bevans, et. al

  10. EDC StoriesLake Apopka Alligators • A “Teeny Weenie” Problem • Kyla Dunne for PBS (June 2, 1998) • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/nature/gallery/alligators.html • Lou Guillette from the University of Florida • 25% smaller phallus in the adult and juvenile male alligators of lake Apopka • Low testosterone levels compared to levels in alligators from healthy lake • Penis size did not reflect amount of testosterone in blood • Causes? • 1980 DDT and dicofol spill into the lake • Chemical runoff from agriculture • Discharge from Sewage Treatment plant • Proving the link • Took alligator eggs from “Clean” lake • Grew them in p,p’ DDE and found similar results to Lake Apopka alligators • "Developmental Abnormalities of the Gonad and Abnormal Sex Hormone Concentrations in Juvenile Alligators from Contaminated and Control Lakes in Florida". Environmental Health Perspectives 102(8):680-688 • "Reduction in Penis Size and Plasma Testosterone Concentrations in Juvenile Alligators Living in a Contaminated Environment". General and Comparative Endocrinology 101:32-42.

  11. Where have EDCs/PPCPs been found? • Surface waters throughout the world • Europe, Asia, Canada, USA • USGS report “Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in US streams 1999-2000: A national reconnaissance” • 95 compounds • 139 streams throughout US sampled • 80% tested positive • ES&T 36 (6), 1202 Koplin et al., 2002

  12. EDC Stories (Hermaphroditic Frogs) • Tyrone Hayes • “Feminization of male frogs in the wild” (Nature, 419: 895-896) • Investigated the effects of exposure to waterborne atrazine contaminiation on Leopard Frogs • Examined different regions of US (Iowa – Utah) • Found 10-92% of males showed gonadal abnormalities • “Atrazine-induced hermaphroditism at 0.1ppb in American Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens): Laboratory and field evidence” (EHP, 111:568-575)

  13. Government Regulations • Compounds are not currently regulated in the United States as EDCs • Process started in 1996 • Endocrine Disrupting Screening Program (EDSP) • Assay development and validation team • Scientific and Technical validation of EDC screens • Priority setting workgroup • Develop and prioritize which compounds are tested as EDCs • Regulatory activities workgroup • Working on regulatory procedures needed to implement EDSP http://www.epa.gov/scipoly/oscpendo/

  14. Samples collected per time zone 195 88 43 17 Participating Utilities

  15. Target Compounds Pharmaceuticals (20) Potential EDCs (26) Steroid Hormones (5) Phytoestrogens (11) AtenololAtrazineEstradiolApigenin AtorvastatinBenzophenoneEstroneBiochanin A o-Hydroxy atorvastatinBHAEthinylestradiol Chrysin p-Hydroxy atorvastatinBHTProgesteroneCoumestrol Carbamazepinea-BHCTestosteroneDaidzein Diazepamb-BHCEquol Diclofenacg-BHCFormononetin Dilantind-BHCGenistein EnalaprilBisphenol AGlycitein FluoxetineButylbenzyl phthalateMatairesinol NorfluoxetineDEETNaringenin GemfibrozilDiazinon MeprobamateDioctyl phthalate NaproxenGalaxolide RisperidoneLinuron SimvastatinMethoxychlor Simvastatin hydroxy acidMetolachlor SulfamethoxazoleMusk ketone TriclosanNonylphenol TrimethoprimOctachlorostyrene Octylphenol TCEP TCPP Tonalide Traseolide Vinclozolin

  16. Detected in Raw Water* (24/62) Pharmaceuticals Potential EDCs Steroid Hormones Phytoestrogens AtenololAtrazineEstradiolApigenin AtorvastatinBenzophenoneEstroneBiochanin A o-Hydroxy atorvastatinBHAEthinylestradiol Chrysin p-Hydroxy atorvastatinBHTProgesteroneCoumestrol Carbamazepinea-BHCTestosteroneDaidzein Diazepamb-BHCEquol Diclofenacg-BHCFormononetin Dilantind-BHCGenistein EnalaprilBisphenol AGlycitein FluoxetineButylbenzyl phthalateMatairesinol NorfluoxetineDEETNaringenin GemfibrozilDiazinon MeprobamateDioctyl phthalate NaproxenGalaxolide RisperidoneLinuron SimvastatinMethoxychlor Simvastatin hydroxy acidMetolachlor SulfamethoxazoleMusk ketone TriclosanNonylphenol TrimethoprimOctachlorostyrene Octylphenol TCEP TCPP Tonalide Traseolide Vinclozolin Estradiol Atorvastatin Benzophenone Biochanin A o-Hydroxy atorvastatinBHA Ethinylestradiol Chrysin p-Hydroxy atorvastatinBHTCoumestrol a-BHC Testosterone Daidzein Diazepam b-BHCEquol g-BHC -BHC Enalapril Bisphenol A Glycitein Fluoxetine Butylbenzyl phthalate Matairesinol Norfluoxetine Naringenin Diazinon Risperidone SimvastatinMethoxychlor Simvastatin hydroxy acid Musk ketone Octachlorostyrene Octylphenol Tonalide Traseolide Vinclozolin * In at least 20% of samples

  17. Detected in Drinking Water* (11/62) Pharmaceuticals Potential EDCs Steroid Hormones Phytoestrogens AtenololAtrazineEstradiolApigenin AtorvastatinBenzophenoneEstroneBiochanin A o-Hydroxy atorvastatinBHAEthinylestradiol Chrysin p-Hydroxy atorvastatinBHTProgesteroneCoumestrol Carbamazepinea-BHCTestosteroneDaidzein Diazepamb-BHCEquol Diclofenacg-BHCFormononetin Dilantind-BHCGenistein EnalaprilBisphenol AGlycitein FluoxetineButylbenzyl phthalateMatairesinol NorfluoxetineDEETNaringenin GemfibrozilDiazinon MeprobamateDioctyl phthalate NaproxenGalaxolide RisperidoneLinuron SimvastatinMethoxychlor Simvastatin hydroxy acidMetolachlor SulfamethoxazoleMusk ketone TriclosanNonylphenol TrimethoprimOctachlorostyrene Octylphenol TCEP TCPP Tonalide Traseolide Vinclozolin EstradiolApigenin Atorvastatin Benzophenone Estrone Biochanin A o-Hydroxy atorvastatinBHAEthinylestradiol Chrysin p-Hydroxy atorvastatinBHTProgesteroneCoumestrol a-BHCTestosteroneDaidzein Diazepamb-BHCEquol Diclofenac g-BHC Formononetin d-BHCGenistein EnalaprilBisphenol AGlycitein FluoxetineButylbenzyl phthalateMatairesinol NorfluoxetineNaringenin Diazinon Dioctyl phthalate Naproxen Galaxolide RisperidoneLinuron SimvastatinMethoxychlor Simvastatin hydroxy acid Musk ketone Triclosan Nonylphenol Trimethoprim Octachlorostyrene Octylphenol Tonalide Traseolide Vinclozolin * In at least 20% of samples

  18. US Drinking Water

  19. AP Story (March, 2008)

  20. Relevance to Human Health

  21. How much would you have to consume?? 300 - 400 1,200,000 30 - 300 770,000 800 - 1200 23,000,000 750 - 1000 5,800,000 20 - 38 1,500,000 120 - 180 980,000 12 - 120 190,000 1200 - 2400 23,000,000 800 - 1200 16,000,000 Liters Daily Dose (mg) Compound Phenytoin ( Dilantin) Phenobarbital ( Luminal) Carbamazepine ( Tegretol) Primidone ( Myidone) Hydrocodone Codeine Diazepam (Valium) Guaifenesin ( Robitussin) Pentoxifylline ( Trental) NOTE: EPA Reference Intake = 2L/day

  22. Human Impacts? • Nelson and Bunge, 1974: • Missouri men have lower sperm counts than men in LA, NY, and Minneapolis • No reason found • Swan et al., 2003: • Confirmed earlier study • Missouri low-sperm count men had higher levels of Atrazine, Alachlor, and Diazanon • Link between pesticides and reproductive effect • No occupational exposure • Source Identified: Drinking water contamination

  23. More Human Cases • DES Daughters • Hypospadias doubled from 1970-1991 (Paulozzi et al, 1997) • Dioxins and endometriosis in monkeys (Rier and Foster, 2002) • Link between increases in breast, testicular and prostate cancers over past 40 years??? (Krishnan and Safe, 1993; Carlsen et al., 1995; EPA, 1997; more) • All linked to hormone mimicking or disrupting compounds

  24. AwwaRF/WateReuse FoundationTailored Collaboration:“Toxicological Relevance of EDCs and Pharmaceuticals in Water”Projects 3085/04-003- Dr. Djanette Khiari – AwwaRF- Mr. Joshua Dickinson - WRF

  25. E-screen Assay • MCF-7 breast cancer cells proliferate in response to estrogenic compounds • Developed by oncologists Ana Soto & Carlos Sonnenschein at Tufts University

  26. E-screen Results(EEq ng/L) 1700 4000 300 6.0 13 2.9 2.5 4.6 nd 0.6 0.7 0.8

  27. 890 mL Secondary Wastewater (4.6 ng/L) 1 cup coffee (17 ng/L, 240 mL) EEq Comparison(“Worst” WWTP)

  28. 1 Liter Secondary Wastewater (4.6 ng/L) Teaspoon of Soy Sauce (300 ng/L, 15 mL) EEq Comparison

  29. EEq Comparison  44 Liters of Secondary Wastewater (4.6 ng/L) Soy Baby Formula (1700 ng/L, 4 oz Bottle)

  30. Breakfast Lunch Dinner Sushi w/ soy sauce = 4.5 ng 2 Cups coffee = 8.2 ng Glass of beer = 2.2 ng Glass of Juice = 0.2 ng Cup of tea = 0.7 ng Daily Intake of EEq (ng) Comparison • “Typical” day for average adult, per serving Glass of milk = 0.1 ng • Est. Total Daily intake of EEq = 15.9 ng

  31. What is the Context for Risk? • Food Exposure • Air Exposure • Water Exposure • Health Endpoints • Cancer • Non-Cancer

  32. Note Atrazine MCL = 3000 ng/L in Water; RfD = 2.45 mg/day for Ave. Adult

  33. “No substance is a poison by itself. It is the dose that makes a substance a poison...” Paracelsus (1493-1541) Risk = Toxicity + Exposure

  34. MRL > 1000 ng/L MRL > 50 ng/L MRL > 20 ng/L MRL > 20 ng/L MRL > 10 ng/L MRL > 20 ng/L MRL > 50 ng/L MRL > 1000 ng/L MRL > 10 ng/L US Drinking Water MRL > 500 ng/L MRL > 100 ng/L

  35. Effects on Water Industry