BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT Presented by Juli Callahan, M.Ed. and Sarah Johnston, M.Ed. February 9, 2010
AGENDA • Autism 101 ~ Asperger’s Syndrome • What Every Teacher Should Know • Teacher Support Strategies • Foundations of Behavior • Applied Behavior Analysis • ABA in the Schools • Functional Behavioral Assessment • Functions of Behavior • FBA – Federal/State/LISD • Behavioral Intervention Plan (BIP) • Behavior Interventions • References • Hollywood Squares
Autism 101~Asperger’s Syndrome Taken from Supporting Students with Asperger’s Syndrome in General Education by Joan S. Safran TEACHING Exceptional Children; May/June 2002
AUTISM …is a neurologically based disorder which significantly affects social perception, interactions, language, and nonverbal communication. ASPERGER’S SYNDROME Children with Asperger’s Syndrome typically exhibit average to superior intellectual capacity, but lack social awareness and skills needed to connect with his or her world.
What Teachers Need to Know • All school personnel need to learn about the characteristics of Asperger’s syndrome. • Individual differences and degrees of severity among students abound. • All students will not demonstrate every characteristic- but it is the combination of interpersonal, motor, and language characteristics, which obscures diagnosis and separates these students with peers with other disabilities, that distinguishes Asperger’s.
What Every Teacher Needs to Know Although special educators and therapists continue to directly teach social skills to students with Asperger’s, inclusion teachers should be well informed about social-skills strategies and supports that they can implement and that will promote generalization across education settings.
Excerpts from a speech by a High School Junior with Asperger’s Syndrome to Educators …The invisible problem is the person with poor social skills, who maybe doesn’t stand out, but doesn’t fit in or is noticed only because he annoys people. This kid may be so afraid of rejection he doesn’t even recognize when people are trying to be nice and drives them away. Kid’s reputations are arrived at early and once arrived at, almost never go away…Without teacher’s help, these kids are lost. Don’t let kids pick their own groups for group work. Group work is supposed to teach how we can work with diverse people, even those we might not get along with. Allowing kids to pick their own groups defeats the purpose. It’s really embarrassing when no one wants you and you either have to work alone or the teacher has to find you a group. Many kids are demeaned daily in class. Teachers give out multiple verbal warnings to the kids who are making fun of someone and then do nothing. A policy of zero tolerance for putdowns and verbal harassment should be adopted.
Supporting Students with Asperger’s Syndrome in General Education Carefully Structure Seating Arrangements and Group work Provide a Safe Haven • Be thoughtful in your classroom seating assignments. • Proximity matters • Avoid self-selection, and consider the nature and maturity of the students in a group or table. • Teach students how to function as a team and use definite cues to promote successful group process (e.g., “Before deciding on a plan, ask around the group to ensure everyone’s idea is heard). • Teach groups a good process to decide on job assignments ~ ensure no one gets left out. • Be aware of student’s strengths • Offer an alternative to attending events such as an assembly, pep rally or unstructured time such as recess. • Explore the use of ear plugs or headphones to assist in screening out excessive noise. • Consider designating a support person and a quiet alternative place to go (i.e., school library or a classroom) where the student can choose to spend lunchtime, study hall, or other free time alone .
Supporting Students with Asperger’s Syndrome in General Education Save the Student from Himself or Herself • Most students with Asperger’s do not internalize social rules, their behavior is often noticed as irritating, rude, and immature. • Metaphorical comments, benign teasing, or sarcasm may be taken literally and misunderstood; accidents may be misperceived as deliberate intents to harm. Observant teachers can matter-of-factly label the experience or comment and help the student avoid distress.
“Separate the child from the syndrome, and try to experience the world through his eyes.” • Clearly state and display class rules and do not expect students to always understand the obvious. • Do not ignore unacceptable remarks made by others. • Have private conversations explaining issues, and behaviors. • Use hand signals or a quiet touch as useful reminders (i.e., lower voice, stop talking). • Assist the student with Asperger’s to connect during class discussions ~ help others see the value in what the student has to say.
Supporting Students with Asperger’s Syndrome in General Education Prepare for Changes in Routine • Most students with Asperger’s thrive on clear expectations and routine. • Class schedules and time frames, written on the board or displayed pictorially for younger students; clearly designated classroom jobs; space; and time on the computer can reduce the anxiety that can overwhelm these students. “To do” lists or assignment books are recommended. • Explain changes in routine well in advance. Visual reminders are helpful. • With older students, have frank discussions at the first of the year, that advance notice is not always possible.
Use Available Resources/Make Accommodations • Students with Asperger’s often have impaired motor skills – gross or fine. Encourage the use of visual graphic organizers, models and technology. • Encourage the use of word processing for written assignments and exams; allow for extra time or arrange a quiet, private space if needed. • When significant amounts of note taking are required, ask a buddy student to share their notes or exchange your notes for his/hers
Supporting Students with Asperger’s Syndrome in General Education • Consider creative ways to connect the student with the kindest and most empathetic peers to promote social acceptance and friendship. • Knowing that students with Asperger’s lack interpersonal intuition and incidental social learning, be ready to help the student engage in successful conversations and reflection.
Supporting Students with Asperger’s Syndrome in General Education • Direct the child towards participation in well-structured activities or clubs where their abilities might neutralize their social deficiencies (i.e., competitive math groups, chess, etc.). • Anticipate consequences and avoid unstructured events. • Consider creating an official peer buddy system that emphasizes friendship, respect for difference, and social interaction. • Identify the student’s special gifts and teach him/her how to share those gifts through tutoring, class presentations, or community service.
Supporting Students with Asperger’s Syndrome in General Education Capitalize on Special Interests • Although it can be valuable to take advantage of the student’s special interests as a bridge to classroom specific content, teachers must not inadvertently encourage self-defeating, obsessive behavior. • Utilize those skills constructively (i.e., by asking the student with a passion for the Internet to serve as the group research specialist; direct student to teach a classmate particular research skills).
Supporting Students with Asperger’s Syndrome in General Education Don’t Take It Personally • The student who interrupts, speaks loudly, misses your jokes, and tells peculiar ones of his own, may be challenging! IF you model warmth and acceptance, peers will too. The same holds for irritations, impatience, or disdain. This child, desperately in need of positive interactions with classmates and adults, will flourish in a supportive environment.
Supporting Students with Asperger’s Syndrome in General Education Help Your Classroom Become a Caring Community Commit to embrace diversity in all of its forms in your classroom. Expect and ensure that students respect, support, and take responsibility for each other. IF we really believe that no child should be left behind, then we have no choice but to persevere in our efforts to ensure that all the student who pass through your doors believe that they belong with each other and with us
Reflection People with Asperger’s Syndrome, often creative, highly intelligent, and technologically, mathematically, or scientifically astute, have the potential for momentous contributions to our society.
Managing Behavior :Why we use, What we use. • Family Guy http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cNkp4QF3we8
ALL BEHAVIOR IS LEARNED • BEHAVIOR SERVES A FUNCTION • SKILL DEFICITS IMPACT PROBLEM BEHAVIOR • TEAM APPROACH IS CRITICAL • THE STUDENT-TEACHER RELATIONSHIP MATTERS • ENVIRONMENT IMPACTS BEHAVIOR
Dangerous Minds: The Absence of Good Behavior (Teacher and Student)
ABA Is the science in which procedures derived from the principles of behavior are systematically applied to improve socially significant behavior to a meaningful degree and to demonstrate experimentally that the procedures employed were responsible for the improvement in behavior (Baer, Wolf, & Risley 1968).
ABA in the Schools • Behavior Management – Included in Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) and Behavior Improvement Plan (BIP) development. • Example Strategies: Point Sheets, Token Economy, Praise, Time-out, Physical Prompting.
ABA in the Schools • Instructional Methods – Basic principles of learning can be included in all educational environments (1:1, small group, and large group). • Effective Instructional Strategies Include: mix and vary activities (i.e. hands on activities vs. worksheets), errorless teaching, and fast-paced/appropriate paced instruction (engaging students even when you are reviewing previously learned information).
Why Incorporate ABA? • Scientifically based practice. • Highly utilitarian tool and flexible method that can be applied in a variety of ways and settings. (Sasso, Garrison-Harrell, McMahon, & Peck, 1998; Strain & Odom, 1986; Simpson, 2001).
Applied Behavior Analysis: (ABA) Behavior is learned and its probability of occurrence is determined by its history of antecedents and consequences. Three-Term Contingency– (refer to ABC card) Antecedent –Behavior -Consequences
ABA Application in “The Office” • http://www.maniacworld.com/Pavlov-Altoid-Theory.html
When does the 3-term happen? • From Birth • All the time • Behaviors are developed and learned based on the environment and genetic make-up of the individual
Topography(what behavior looks like) vs. Function: Our first starting point Topographies of Behavior– Kicking, throwing items, flopping to floor, bolting, arguing, cussing, etc. Topographies are the form of the behavior. One behavior (i.e., excessive questioning) can serve any function (i.e., attention seeking/escape-avoidance). _____________________________________________ Function is determined based on the 3-term contingency Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence
Functional Behavior Assessment • A set of procedures used to identify the causeof a maladaptive behavior and reduce it through teaching replacement behaviors instead of suppressing it through punishment. • The term functional refers to the causesof behavior. • The body of empirical and scientific literature which supports these methods is found in the field of Applied Behavior Analysis.
Functional Assessment • Skinner’s research and the research of his followers stressed the importance of identifying the environmental events which were functionally related to behavior.
Skinner: Operant Conditioning in action! From The Big Bang Theory http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JA96Fba-WHk
Functional Assessment • The outcome of the assessment is an analysis of the way the person learnedthe behavior and how it is presently supported or maintained in the present learning environment. Instead, the purpose of the assessment is to classify the maladaptive behavior by its function(cause) and then select treatments or interventions which are effective in reducing behavior in that functional category. • Consequently, treatments or interventions are classified by functional categoriesand not by form of the maladaptive behavior.
Functional Assessment • In the field of education many practitioners choose interventions or treatments based upon the behavior (form) instead of function. • As a result, some recommended interventions actually strengthen the maladaptive behavior instead of reducing it. • This situation can make school districts and their personnel vulnerable to successful legal, administrative and ethical challenges.
Function of Behavior – (Simplified) Trying to Get It!!!! Trying to Get Away from IT!!!!
Function of Behavior – (Simplified)Conditions People Around/Social Alone/Automatic
4 Functions of Behavior • Socially Mediated Positive Reinforcement =Trying to get it/people must be involved • Socially Mediated Negative Reinforcement = Trying to get away or avoid/people must be involved • Automatic Positive Reinforcement =Trying to get it/no other people involved (alone) • Automatic Negative Reinforcement = Trying to get away/no other people involved (alone)
Socially MediatedPositive(involves people) (+) (Get more of)Reinforcement = Trying to get it w/people involved To GAIN access to something desired, such as: • Attention • Access to Preferred Activities • Access to Preferred Tangible Items
Trying to Get It– Socially Mediated Positive Reinforcement *Note: This consequence will most likely reinforce the behavior and assure it’s reoccurrence! Student doesn’t get what she wants, she cries then gets it.
What is he trying to get more of??? • http://www.mypottery.com/why-waste-temper-tantrum/KpSfThUv_pc/
Socially MediatedNegativeReinforcement(must involve people )(-) (take away or less of) Trying to Get Away/Avoid Escape/avoidance/postponement of un-preferred demand(s) (i.e. A student has difficulty with math. Teacher announces that it’s time for Math and student asks to go to restroom in order to avoid or postpone the undesired task).
Trying to Get Away – Socially Mediated Negative Reinforcement *Note: This consequence will likely strengthen the student’s behavior of throwing the pencil. If he is in the office, he is not doing math!
Rainman: What is the function of his behavior?Does his first set of behaviors work? Then what does he do? • (Warning: Profanity)
AutomaticPositiveReinforcement(alone ) (+ get more of) Movements or activities of your body that produce a feeling which makes the behavior that produced it more likely to occur. • Self-stimulatory sensations produced by behavior (hand-flapping, gazing, hair twirling, rocking, chewing gum.)