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Roman Architecture and Art

Roman Architecture and Art

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Roman Architecture and Art

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  1. Roman Architecture and Art Mr. Nikolov

  2. 1. Roman Architecture • The Roman architecture is utilitarian, practical, because the Romans are pragmatic in spirit. Most of the Roman buildings are for civil use, not religious. • Romans invented materials and construction techniques that allow them to build multi-storey buildings – concrete, brick and the arch. Ceramic is the most durable material in the world. Indoor plumbing, hypocaust heating. • Roman engineers no longer depend on the landscape, they can alter it to their needs.

  3. A. Roman Utilities • Aqueducts – using arcades to deliver water to cities from mountain sources. • Bridges – permanent crossings of rivers. • Roads – for army use and trade. • Amphitheaters – for mass entertainment, not culture or arts. They have 2 parts – Theatron for spectators and Arena for performance. No religious significance. • Baths – community centers with attached library, gym, swimming pool, spa and conference rooms

  4. Roman Aqueducts

  5. Another aqueduct

  6. The Coliseum

  7. Circus Maximus

  8. Via Appia

  9. Via Appia

  10. Roman bridge in Spain

  11. Roman Bath

  12. Roman bath

  13. B. Political Architecture • The Forum – center of public life and trade. The largest is the Forum of Trajan. Rectangular shaped with public buildings around it. Second forum build by Constantine I in Constantinople. • The Triumphal Arch – built by Emperors as a symbol of Victory in war. Oldest is the Arch if Titus. Last is the Arch of Constantine the Great. They have inscription about the event – primary source. Usually built near the Forum. • The obelisk – precedes the arch, same meaning

  14. Forum in Rome

  15. Arch of Constantine

  16. C. Private Architecture • The Roman house – accommodates the extended family. Comfort and durability. • Well decorated – mosaics, wall paintings. • The Roman villa – a cottage in the country or by the sea, eventually some of them developed into country estates.

  17. Roman house

  18. House in Pompeii

  19. Villa Adrianna

  20. D. The Roman temples • Roman temples were built close to the forum. Religion was a very public function in Rome. Temples accommodate several gods. Emperor Hadrian built the temple of all gods – Pantheon. Romans often built round temples accessible trough only one door. Some have internal atrium. Greek columns were borrowed, but the orders were mixed; often only decorative. • Christian basilicas were build in the 4th and 5th centuries – have the shape of a cross.

  21. The Pantheon

  22. The Pantheon

  23. Roman basilicas

  24. The Roman Art • Same as architecture, art is practical, realistic, used entertainment, not religion. • Etruscan terracotta statues, mostly on sarcophagus – memorial for the deceased. • Republican art – bronze portraits, realistic. Legends – Capitoline She-Wolf, marble and bronze copies of Greek originals (gods and heroes). Simple paintings. • Imperial art – more idealized images, marble portraits of emperors and empresses, historical relief, mosaics, and wall painting (Pompeii). Much more nudity than in Greek art. Scenes from mythology or leisure, not sports. Local influences in the provinces (e.g. Faiyum portraits).

  25. Etruscan Terracotta

  26. Portraits of Caesar

  27. Romulus and Remus

  28. Portraits of Augustus

  29. Claudius and Nero

  30. Trajan and Hadrian

  31. Marcus Aurelius

  32. Constantine the Great

  33. Relief – Column of Trajan and Arch of Trajan

  34. Mosaics - Pompeii

  35. Wall paintings - Pompeii

  36. More Pompeii

  37. Faiyum Portraits

  38. Christian Art