Have you ever been involved in a crane or forklift accident, or rigging failure???
Training Objectives • After completing this course, you will: • Know the basic OSHA requirements for the storage and disposal of materials. • Know hazards in both mechanical and manual material handling. • Understand hazards of rigging and crane operations and how to minimize them. • Be aware of proper lifting techniques.
STATISTICS • In 2002, accidents resulting from manual material handling resulted in more than $10 Billion in losses!!!! • In 2002, injuries associated with repetitive motion, and improper lifting technique cost $2.4 Billion!!!
WHAT IS MATERIAL HANDLING? • Material handling is the art and science of moving, storing, protecting and controlling material. • Includes both Mechanical and Manual methods
DANGERS OF MATERIAL HANDLING • Unsafe storage and materials movement can lead to: • Back injuries (the number one cause of worker compensation claims). • Struck-by or crushed by falling loads due to rigging failures. • Electrocutions due to power line contact. • Injury from falling materials. • Injury from slipping, tripping and falling.
SAFETY SLOGAN “Is better to lose one minute in life... than to lose life in a minute. “
Anatomy of the Back • Why do injuries occur? • Knowing what causes back injuries can help you prevent them.
The Forces Involved * The amount of force you place on your body during lifting may surprise you. • Think of your back as a lever • With the fulcrum in the center, it only takes ten pounds of pressure to lift a ten pound object.
The Forces Involved • If you shift the fulcrum to one side, it takes much more force • to lift the same object. Your waist acts like the fulcrum in a • lever system, on a 10:1 ratio. Lifting a ten pound object puts 100 pounds of pressure on your lower back.
The Forces Involved * When you add in the 105 pounds of the average human upper torso, you see that lifting a ten pound object actually puts 1,150 pounds of pressure on the lower back.
Moving Materials by HandBack facts • 8 out of 10 Americans will have a back injury during their life. • Approximately 1 out of 3 injuries at work are back injuries. • Personal pain and inconvenience can not be measured. • Back injuries cost employers an estimated 10 billion dollars each year!
Common Causes of Back Injuries • Lifting too much weight. Especially repetitively • Twisting at the waist while holding a heavy load • Reaching and lifting overhead, or away from the body • Lifting and carrying objects that have awkward shapes • Working in awkward, uncomfortable positions • Sitting or standing too long in one position • Slip / Trip / Fall
Things you can do to help your back • You can minimize problems with your back by exercises that tone the muscles in your back, hips and thighs. • Before beginning any exercise program, you should check with your doctor and follow his/her advice concerning any exercise program. With his/her approval you should: • Exercise regularly, every other day. • Warm up slowly . . . walking is a good way to warm up. • Inhale deeply before each repetition of an exercise and exhale when performing each repetition.
How to prevent back injuriesTeam Lifting • Use team lifting for: • Loads too heavy for one person. • Loads too bulky for one person. • Long loads such as pipes and rolls of material. • Talk to your team-mate! • Coordinate your lift!
PROPER LIFTING TECHNIQUES • Use proper lift procedures . . . follow these steps when lifting . . 1. Know where you are going. Is the path clear? 2. Size up the load. (Is it too heavy? Do I need gloves?) 3. Take a balanced stance, feet shoulder-width apart. 4. Squat down to lift, get as close as you can.
PROPER LIFTING TECHNIQUES 5. Get a secure grip, hug the load. 6. Lift gradually using your legs, keep load close to you, keep back and neck straight.
PROPER LIFTING TECHNIQUES 7. Once standing, change directions by pointing your feet and turn your whole body. Avoid twisting at your waist. 8. To put load down, use these guidelines in reverse.
Take care of your back… • And it will take care of you • Exercise daily • Avoid Heavy Lifting • Get Help with heavy or bulky objects • If you must bend over, do it properly • Avoid twisting at the waist when carrying objects • Always watch where you’re going
What About Back Belts? • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) says: • Back belts may not reduce stress on the back. • May increase blood pressure and heart rate. • May make you think you can lift heavier loads with a belt on and you could get hurt trying to. • If you want to wear a belt; don’t wear it too tight and don’t lift more than you usually would.
Safe Rigging Practices Know How to Do It Right! Then Do It Right!
Job Site Considerations The person authorized and qualified to do rigging must always pay close attention to details. One careless moment or act can result in serious injury or death and tremendous property damage. Proper rigging is an art and should never be left to the inexperienced. If you don’t know how to do it properly, then don’t attempt it.
Objectives • Be familiar with OSHA’s regulations regarding slings. • Understand safe sling use. • Be able to identify and describe conditions necessitating sling’s replacement. • Understand how load angle effects rigging capacity.
29 CFR 1910.184 Slings Sling: An assembly which connects the load to the material handling (lifting) equipment.
Three Types of Slings • Chain Slings • Wire Rope Slings • Synthetic Web Slings
Frequency of Sling Inspections 1926.251 – Rigging equipment for material handling shall be inspected prior to use on each shift and as necessary during its use to ensure that it is safe. Defective rigging equipment shall be removed from service.
Chain Sling Inspection Items • Cracks, stretches, severe nicks, gouges, welding splattered or deformed master links, coupling links, chains or other components. • One leg of a double or triple chain sling is longer than the others. • Hooks have been opened more than 25% of the normal throat opening measured at the narrowest point or twisted more than 10 degrees from the plane of the unbent hook. • Documented Inspections must be performed and maintained for each chain sling. Inspection data must be compared with previous inspections.
Chain Slings Only chain slings purchased from the manufacturer are allowed.No homemade slings allowed!!
Wire Rope Sling Inspection Items • Three randomly distributed broken wires in one strand, in one rope lay. • Wear or scraping of 1/3 the original diameter of outside individual wires. • Kinking, crushing or any damage resulting in distortion of the wire rope. • End attachments that are cracked, worn or deformed. • Corrosion of the rope or end attachments.
Synthetic Web Sling Inspection Items • Acid or caustic burns on the sling. • Melting or charring of any part of the sling’s surface. • Snags, punctures, tears, or cuts. • Stitching is broken or worn. • The sling is stretched. To assist operators in determining if a sling is stretched, manufacturers incorporate a colored wear cord inside of the sling. When this red wear cord can be readily seen upon inspecting the sling, the sling has been stretched and is to be removed. The web sling may need to be removed from service before the wear indicator is showing.
The Hazards of Rigging • Possible contact with power lines. • Rigging failures due to overloaded, improper, or defective rigging. • Out of control loads. • Being struck by the crane’s swing radius.
Can Anyone Rig or Lift Loads? • Rigging must be done under the supervision of a Competent Person. • The crane operator must be highly qualified and certified. • Improper rigging or unqualified operators can be deadly!
The Rigger’s Duties • The rigger selects the rigging. • The rigger sets-up the rigging. • The rigger directs the lift.
OSHA Rigging Requirements • All slings and hardware must be: • Manufactured to meet demanding specifications. • Clearly stamped, marked, or labeled. • OSHA prohibits job-made: slings, hooks, links, and fasteners formed from bolts. • Before each use all components must be inspected by a Competent Person.
Definitions Hitch “Basket” - loading with the sling passed under the load and both ends on the hook or a single master link.
Definitions Hitch “Choker” – loading with the sling passed through one eye and suspended by the other.
Definitions Hitch “Vertical” – loading with the the load suspended vertically on a single part or leg of the sling.
Sling Capacities 60 degrees 45 degrees 30 degrees A sling capable of lifting 1000 lbs in a vertical basket hitch, can only lift 866 lbs at a 60 degree angle, and 707 lbs at a 45 degree angle, and 500 lbs at a 30 degree angle. 60 30
Working Safely Around Rigging • General safety guidelines: • Keep at least ten feet away from power lines. • Never hoist loads over workers. • Never stand too close or under a load. • Never ride a load. • Use sling angles greater than 45 degrees. • Attach tag lines to control loads while lifting. • Test lift the rigging. • Use proper equipment, make sure it is marked, not home-made, and in good shape.
Rigging the Load Sling angles <450, load unstable, receiver not protected. Balanced load; sling angle >600
Never shock load slings. Keep loads balanced to prevent overloading slings. Always lift loads straight up. Never rest a load on a sling, or pinch a sling between the load and the floor. Slings should be stored off of the floor and hung on racks whenever possible in a clean, dry environment. Never drag slings across the floor. Safe Usage Practices • A sling should not be pulled from under a load when the load is resting on the sling. • Make sure the hook is always over the center of gravity of the load before lifting it. • Do not apply a load to a twisted, knotted or kinked chain. • Do not force or hammer hooks or chains into position. • Always hook with a “closed hook” arrangement (hooks facing out).
Safe Usage Practices (Cont.) • Hands and Fingers shall not be placed between the sling and the load while the sling is being tightened around the load. • Clean chains regularly as dirt and grit can cause excessive wear at the link bearing points. • Never shorten a sling with knots, bolts or other makeshift devices. Knots in slings reduce the capacity by as much as 50%!! • Protect the chain’s surface from contact with sharp corners, which can cause permanent damage through gouging or abnormal stress and wear.
Rigging Protection FromCutting or Slipping Softeners, padding or use of blocking..