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Introduction to SOI-Asia Network

Introduction to SOI-Asia Network

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Introduction to SOI-Asia Network

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  1. Introduction to SOI-Asia Network AI3 Project Overview SOI-Asia Network Overview UDLR Overview (Specification) UDLR in SOI-Asia Network (Implementation) Requirements for Developing SOI-Asia Network

  2. Before we go in detail onAI3 and SOI-Asia Network… • In general, satellite links have • Wide coverage without geographical limitation • Broadcast capability • Flexibility on link configuration • Frequency, information rate, etc… JCSAT-3 Satellite Footprint http://www.jsat.net/satellite/list.html

  3. Earth Station Receive-Only v.s.Transmit-Capable

  4. AI3 Project Overview

  5. What is AI3 Project? • Asian Internet Interconnection Initiatives • An international research consortium among research institutes in Asian region • Started in 1995 • Objective • To form a group of researchers to develop leading edge technologies for the Internet • Supporting SOI-Asia project from the view point of network infrastructure

  6. AI3 partners (Connected by BDL) AIT (Thailand) ITB (Indonesia) TP (Singapore) USM (Malaysia) IOIT (Vietnam) ASTI (Philippines) KEIO (Japan) NAIST (Japan) SOI-Asia partners (Connected by UDL) 4 from Indonesia 3 from Thailand 1 from Philippines 1 each from following countries Malaysia Lao PDR Myanmar Cambodia Bangladesh Mongolia Nepal Some AI3 Partners Partners List

  7. AI3 Network in the Map

  8. AI3Network Topology 2005-04-17 by Shunsuke Fujieda (sirokuma@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp) RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR UDL 9.6Mbps (202.249.25.192/27, 2001:d30:101:5::/64) AS Number and Prefix matrix 208, ::15:15 207, ::18:18 198, ::14:14 216, ::16:16 209, ::17:17 218, :: 19:19 201, ::b:b 137, ::1 145, ::1 153, ::1 161, ::1 169, ::1 129, ::1 57, ::1 202.249.24.168/29 2001:d30:119::/64 202.249.26.56/29 2001:d30:10b::/64 202.249.24.136/29 2001:d30:115::/64 202.249.24.144/29 2001:d30:116::/64 202.249.24.152/29 2001:d30:117::/64 202.249.24.128/29 2001:d30:114::/64 202.249.24.160/29 2001:d30:118::/64 TU UNIBRAW PSU MUST ITC CRMA BUET AS4767 AS4796 203, ??? 206, ??? 205, ??? 204, ??? 200, ::12:12 196, ::d:d 199, ::10:10 202, ::f:f 197, ::c:c 89, ::1 73, ::1 121, ::1 81, ::1 17, ::1 41, ::1 49, ::1 65, ::1 25, ::1 202.249.26.88/29 2001:d30:???::/64 202.249.25.80/28 2001:d30:???::/64 202.249.26.72/29 2001:d30:???::/64 202.249.24.80/28 2001:d30:???::/64 202.249.26.80/29 2001:d30:???::/64 202.249.24.64/28 2001:d30:???::/64 ??? 202.249.26.120/29 2001:d30:???::/64 202.249.24.184/30 202.249.26.16/29 2001:d30:10d::/64 202.249.26.24/29 2001:d30:10c::/64 202.249.26.40/29 2001:d30:110::/64 202.249.26.64/29 2001:d30:10f::/64 202.249.26.48/29 2001:d30:112::/64 ASTI UNHAS CHULA UNSRAT Myanmar AYF 202.249.25.32/28 2001:d30:???::/64 AIT ITB IOIT 198 ::e:e 194 ::a:a 195 ::b:b 33, ::1 1, ::1 9, ::1 202.249.26.0/29 2001:d30:10a::/64 202.249.26.8/29 2001:d30:10b::/64 202.249.26.32/29 2001:d30:10e::/64 AS9821 USM 226----202.249.24.224/29----227 234----202.249.24.232/29----233 106----202.249.26.104/29----107 NUOL SFC-RO1 SFC-RO2 98----202.249.26.96/29----99 202.249.25.64/28 2001:d30:???::/64 202.249.26.116/30 GRE Destination v6 only 177----202.249.25.178/29----179 sfc-sonyl-feed v6 only sfc-sat2 236 202.249.25.48/28 2001:d30:???::/64 3, ::3 244 193, ::1 sfc-udl-feed 234, ::2 11, ::11 sfc-udl-router 233, ::233 187----202.249.25.184/29----186 TP 202.249.25.224/27 2001:d30:101:2::/64 Point-to-Point Link bandwidth matrix 225,::1 sfc-orochi 3, ::3 ns1.ai3.net www.ai3.net mr 202.249.25.0/27 2001:d30:101:1::/64 NSPIXP6 202.249.24.0/27 2001:d30:102:1000::/64 sfc-cpu sfc-serv (ns2.ai3.net) BGP-RR 30, ::7 gr2000 5, ::5 nara-sfc-pc 251 6, ::7 sfc-apan-gate 250 1, ::1 sfc-gate 252 28 C6 249 BGP-RR AS7660 n6-gate 253 AS6447 AS5511 202.249.24.246/29 AS2500 Bi-directional Sat Link AS290 203.178.140.225/27 203.181.248.125/30 202.249.26.112/26 202.249.24.240/30 203.181.248.240/29 Uni-directional Sat Link EBGP peering Local Link AS2500 AS2500 AS7660 AS2500 AS7660

  9. AI3 External Peering ITB AS 4796 AIT AS 4767 ASTI AS 9821 USM AS 17815 TP AS 9292 AI3 AS 4717 OPENTRANSIT AS 5511 RouteViews AS 6447 APAN AS 7660 SoftBank BB AS 17676 WIDE AS 2500

  10. SOI Asia Network Overview

  11. What is SOI-Asia Network? (original) • Network infrastructure for SOI-Asia activity • Deliver real-time lectures to SOI-Asia partners • Accommodate traffic for daily life • Composed of several machines with specialized services and functions • Operation body • AI3/SOI-Asia network operators

  12. What is SOI-Asia Network? • Network infrastructure for SOI-Asia activity • Distribute real-time lectures to SOI-Asia partners • Accommodate traffic for daily life • Composed of several machines with specialized services and functions • Operation body • AI3/SOI-Asia network operators

  13. Using Satellite link asUni-Directional Link (UDL) (original) • A satellite network which is composed of: • One transmit-capable stations • Many receive-only stations Receive-OnlyStations (Receivers) Transmit-CapableStation (Feed)

  14. Using Satellite Link asUni-Directional Link (UDL) • A satellite network which is composed of: • One transmit-capable stations • Many receive-only stations Receive-Onlystations (Receivers) Transmit-Capablestation (Feed)

  15. SOI Asia Network Topology 9Mbps Satellite Link Satellite Feeder (SONY-FEED) Satellite Receiver (SONY-BOX / UDBox) Receive Router (RR) Feed Router INTERNET GW Router ISP Router

  16. Standard Network Topology of SOI Asia RO Site 9Mbps Satellite Link INTERNET Satellite Receiver ISP Router Receive Router (RR) Campus LAN Staff PC RPT Client WMT Client VIC/RAT Client SOI Server

  17. Is SOI-Asia Network Strange? Why? Husni, please try “tracert www.ai3.net“from VIC/RAT PC

  18. Is SOI-Asia Network Strange? Why? Husni, please try “tracert ayf-udl-recv.ai3.net“from VIC/RAT PC

  19. Before we go in detail of how SOI-Asia network works…. • 3 generic types of data link in the Internet • Point-to-Point • Broadcast (multiple access) • Non-Broadcast Multiple Access

  20. Point-to-Point • Only 2 nodes on the link • Nobody else to send a packet • MAC address is not necessary on Point-to-Point link • Bi-directional • Examples • Serial connection • Digital dedicated line • Dial-up connection Node A Node B

  21. Broadcast (Multiple Access) • Multiple nodes connects on the link • A packet is broadcasted to all nodes on the link • Requires MAC address resolution • Bi-directional • Example • Ethernet Node A Node C Node B Node D Node Z Node E ・・・・・・・

  22. Non-BroadcastMultiple Access • Multiple nodes connects on the link • Data is delivered to a single or multiple nodes • No broadcast capability • Bidirectional • Example • ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) Node A Node C Node B Node D Node Z Node E ・・・・・・・

  23. Problem on SOI-Asia Network • We’re using satellite link as UDL • Not categorized in none of previous 3 link types • What does it mean, actually? • Send-only node can’t find other nodes on the link • Receive-only node can find only send-capable node but no other receive-only nodes • One-way link is unexpected in the Internet • Routing protocols • Address resolution (ARP, NDP) • Transport protocols and applications

  24. Example: ARP • Assumption of the Internet • Data link is bi-directional • Process to communicate between A and B • A requests the MAC address of B (ARP request) • B answers its MAC address to A (ARP reply) • A knows the destination interface MAC address • No ARP Reply from B? ARP request: What is B’s MAC address? ARP reply: B’s MAC address is.. A B

  25. UDLR Overview Specification Why packets could come and go on the one-way link?

  26. What is UDLR? • Uni-Directional Link Routing • Specified as “A Link-Layer Tunneling Mechanism for Unidirectional Links“ in RFC3077 • Objectives • To allow nodes to communicate on a uni-directional link • Approach • Deliver a packet from receive-only node to send-capable node via the Internet • To emulate Broadcast Multiple Access link on a uni-directional link

  27. Definition of Links and Nodes • Links • UDL: Uni-directional Link • BDL: Bi-directional Link (LAN Connectivity to the Internet) • Nodes • Send-only Feed: A router that has send-only connectivity to a UDL • Receiver: A router or a host that has receive-only connectivity to a UDL • Assumption • Both Send-only Feed and Receiver has BDL connection

  28. Physical Connection • Each Node is belonging to the different LAN • Can’t directly communicate with others on UDL LAN LAN LAN LAN LAN Transmit-CapableStation (Send-only Feed) INTERNET Receive-OnlyStations (Receivers)

  29. Logical Connection with UDLR • Every node connects to the single subnet • The subnet works like Ethernet • Bi-directional • Broadcast Multiple Access

  30. UDLR asCollection of 3 Technologies LLTM Broadcast Emulation UDLR DTCP

  31. Link LayerTunneling Mechanism(LLTM)

  32. What is LLTM? • Give virtual “Send Capability” to Receiver on the UDL • Emulate direct bi-directional communication between Send-only Feed and Receiver on UDL • Each Receiver establishes Link Layer Tunnel with Send-only Feed • Data link frame from Receiver is delivered to UDL I/F of Send-only Feed via the Internet • Send-only Feed processes the data link frame as if it were directly received from Receiver over UDL

  33. Packet from Receiverto Send-only Feed Receiver Send-only Feed UDL Receiver BDL Internet

  34. Packet from Receiverto Send-only Feed Receiver Send-only Feed UDL Receiver BDL Internet

  35. Packet from Receiverto Send-only Feed Receiver Send-only Feed UDL Receiver BDL Internet

  36. Packet from Receiverto Send-only Feed Receiver Send-only Feed UDL Receiver BDL Internet

  37. Packet from Receiverto Send-only Feed Receiver Send-only Feed UDL Receiver BDL Internet

  38. Packet from Receiverto Send-only Feed Receiver Send-only Feed UDL Receiver BDL Internet

  39. Packet from Receiverto Send-only Feed Receiver Send-only Feed UDL Receiver BDL Internet

  40. Packet from Receiverto Send-only Feed Receiver Send-only Feed UDL Receiver BDL Internet

  41. Packet from Receiverto Send-only Feed Receiver Send-only Feed UDL Receiver BDL Internet

  42. Packet from Receiverto Send-only Feed Receiver Send-only Feed UDL Receiver BDL Internet

  43. Packet from Receiverto Send-only Feed Receiver Send-only Feed UDL Receiver BDL Internet

  44. Packet from Receiverto Send-only Feed Receiver Send-only Feed UDL Receiver BDL Internet

  45. What does it happen in Send-only Feed and Receiver? Ethernet Frame Ethernet Frame GRE GRE Decapsulation Encapsulation 11 4 Network Layer IP Packet IP Packet 10 5 13 1 Send-only Feed Ethernet Ethernet Receiver 9 Data Link Layer 6 3 2 12 Physical Layer A B 8 7 BDL I/F BDL I/F UDL I/F UDL I/F IP Packet Uni-Directional Link Bi-Directional Link Ethernet Frame GRE

  46. GRE Encapsulation • Generic Routing Encapsulation • Receiver encapsulates a data link frame as IP payload data with GRE header • Send-only Feed decapsulates the original data link frame and receives it from UDL I/F Payload Ethernet Header IP Header GRE Header Payload IP Header Ethernet Header

  47. Broadcast Emulation

  48. Broadcast Emulation • Emulate Bi-Directional Multi-access Link on UDL (i.e. Ethernet) • Feed forwards the decapsulated data link frame from Receiver if its destination MAC address is: • Multicast • Broadcast • Receiver’s • Essential for normal behavior for ARP or other infrastructure technology of the Internet

  49. A B Broadcast Emulationwith “ARP” ARP Request To: FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF Who is B? LAN LAN LAN Receivers Send-only Feed INTERNET

  50. A B Broadcast Emulationwith “ARP” LAN LAN LAN Receivers Send-only Feed INTERNET