Social entrepreneur • Development change agent working in the market as an arena • Innovative, opportunity-seeking, resourceful person, group or institution • Leads creation of enterprises, enterprise systems or enterprise development programs demonstrating positive development impact
George Dess (1999) Social Entrepreneurs play the role of change agents in the social sector • Adopting mission to create and sustain social value(not just private value) • Recognizing and relentlessly pursuing new opportunities to serve that mission • Engaging in a process of continuous innovation , adaptation , and learning • Acting boldly without being limited by resource currently in hand • Exhibiting heightened accountability to the constituencies served and for the outcomes created
Social entrepreneurship • is the process of involving the innovative use and combination of resources to pursue opportunities to catalyze social change and /or address social need • Innovative social-value creating activity that can occur within or across the non –profit, business or govt. sectors
Social entrepreneurship arises from an unconscious spirit of generosity within various people who produce facility to envision, resource and enable activity which otherwise exists as unmet need. Need is lessened by a social entrepreneur , who posseses unique qualities to match the need (Loris Gillin)
Characteristics of Social Entrepreneur • Willingness to Self-Correct The entrepreneur’s inclination to self-correct stems from the attachment to a goal rather than to a particular approach or plan” . • Willingness to Share Credit “Mr. David Kuria of Kenya, Founder of IkoToilet. Kuria built hygienic and affordable toilets for the 1 million slumdwellers of Kibera (a district of Nairobi, Kenya) but found that government regulations would make it difficult to expand his efforts. So he put the City Council of Nairobi’s logo on all Ikotoilets he constructed, which made people feel like the government was responding to their needs. The government was happy to take the credit and became very supportive of Kuria’s Ikotoilet, lifting barriers for expansion. In fact, to give my teammates here at the Unreasonable Institute an opportunity to be excellent, I routinely take credit for their work.
Willingness to Break Free of Established Structure Social entrepreneurs do not depend on traditional avenues for creating social impact (e.g. government, religious institutions) and blaze their own paths for creating impact. • Willingness to Cross Disciplinary Boundaries Social entrepreneurs not only escape established structures, they also combine thinking and resources from different disciplines to achieve their intended goal.
Willingness to Work Quietly Many social entrepreneurs are recognized only after working for years on their ideas in relative obscurity. • Strong Ethical Impetus Highly-successful Social entrepreneurs aren’t fueled by a drive to become famous or build a fortune, but a desire to restore justice in society, to address social problems.
Gramin Bank Banladesh This is not a charity. This is business; business with social objective, which help people get out of poverty. Prof. Mohd. Yunus • Revolutionized the banking industry in late 1970 • Started microloan with no collateral of the poor • Recipients of the noble peace prize 2006 for contribution of social and economic development • As of October, 2011, it has 8.349 million borrowers, 97 percent of whom are women. With 2,565 branches, GB provides services in 81,379 villages, covering more than 97 percent of the total villages in Bangladesh.
Idea • Borrowers are organized into group of 5,but all members can not borrow at once • Two borrowers may receive microloan at one time ; but not until these two borrowers begin to pay back the principal plus interest can the other members become eligible for their own loans • Average interest rate is 16% • The repayment rate is an unprecedented 98% • Which is attributed group pressure , empowerment and motivation
Objective • Extend Banking facilities to poor men and women • Eliminate the exploitation of the poor by money lenders • Create opportunities for self employment • Bring the disadvantage , mostly women from the poorest household
BASIX • The Holding Company of the BASIX Group is called Bhartiya Samruddhi Investments and Consulting Services (BASICS) Ltd.) • Which started operations in 1996 as India’s first “new generation livelihood promotion institution”. • Mr. Vijay Mahajan is the Founder and Chairman of the BASIX Social Enterprise Group (www.basixindia.com), which promotes livelihoods of three million poor households • He is a Distinguished Alumnus of both the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi and the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, and was selected as a Mid-Career Fellow at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, USA.
SARVODAYA NANO FINANCE LTD • Non-bank financial institution set up by Basix to service self-help groups (SHGs) of poor women • July 2001: devolved ownership to community-based mutual benefit trusts of 5,000 SHGs of poor women in Tamil Nadu • 3-year agreement for Basix to provide management services