Train the Trainer Thriving with Your Spirited Child
Presented by: University of Wisconsin-Extension Faden Fulleylove-Krause and Donna Doll-Yogerst UWEX Family Living Educators Oconto and Calumet Counties
Theory, Research and Application Developed by • Faden Fulleylove-Krause, Professor, Family Development, UWEX • Carol Ostergren, Ph.d., Outreach Specialist, UWEX University of Wisconsin-Extension
An Overview • Temperament theory • Goodness of fit model • Family Systems theory • Research supporting application • Temperament programs
Temperament & Family Systems: Theory, Research and Application • Temperament IS • Childs temperament is only one aspect of the child • Situation and environment, two aspects that parents can influence University of Wisconsin-Extension
Temperament Theory:A brief historical overview The Ancient Greeks • Blood – cheerfulness • Phlegm – sluggishness or apathy • Black bile – gloominess • Yellow bile - anger
Temperament Theory:A brief historical overview • 17th century – individual differences in behavior no longer due to inborn nature, individual as a “blank slate” • 19th century – continued emphasis on external forces to explain temperament (Freud’s psychoanalytic theory) • early 20th century – behaviorist theory also focused on the role of environment
Temperament Theory:A brief historical overview Mid 20th century researchers began to question this extreme environmentalism: • Bell & Sameroff recognized that infants’ behavior influenced parent-child interactions (not a one-way street from parent to child) • Chess & Thomas noticed that some children with behavior problems had received “good parenting”, while some well adjusted children had received “bad parenting”.
Temperament Theory:A brief historical overview • These events suggested that both nature (inborn individual differences) and nurture (parenting) influence development • Temperament reemerged as an influence on child development
Temperament Theory:Common ground Various theoretical approaches agree temperament: • is biologically based • refers to individual differences • is modifiable by environment • exhibits a relative degree of stability over time
Temperament Theory:Chess & Thomas • Environment can influence the behavioral expression of temperament, as well as its underlying nature (Kagan’s research) • Pioneering NYLS interviewed 133 parents of 3-month-olds, followed them for over 30 years • Identified 9 temperament traits by analyzing contents of interviews (clinical significance)
Nine temperament traits • Sensitivity • Intensity • Activity • Biological rhythmicity • Adaptability • Approach/withdrawal • Persistence • Distractibility • Mood
Chess & ThomasDifficultness concept These traits were labeled the “difficult” cluster: - high intensity - withdrawal from novelty - slow adaptability - low regularity - negative mood
Isabel Briggs Myers Energy Source Introversion Extroversion Gather Information Intuitive Sensing Make Decisions Feeling Thinking Organize Life Perceptive Judgmental
David Kiersey, Marilyn Bates • Please Understand Me, 1984 Character and Temperament • Advisor Team, corporate world 4 Temperment types Artisan Guardians Rationals Idealist Website: www.advisorteam.com
LindaBudd • Active Alert 1993
Mary Sheedy Kurcinka Raising your Spirited Child, 1991 • Intense • Persistent • Sensitive • Low adaptability • Perceptive
Preventive Ounce Temperament Program • Parents complete temperament questionnaire (infant, toddler, preschool-age child) • Website: www.preventiveoz.org • Parents receive: - a profile of their child’s temperament - a forecast of “likely to occur” behaviors - strategies for managing “likely to occur” behaviors that are individualized to their child’s temperament
Evaluation of Preventive Ounce Program • Research in Wisconsin, with both the infant & preschool program replicated findings of: - clinical effectiveness - differential utility • parents with less education or more difficult temperament children found the program significantly more useful
Evaluation of Preventive Ounce Program About 3/4 of parents in Carol Ostergren’s study reported that the temperament advice helped them: • “anticipate my child’s behavior” • “improve my relationship with my child” • “be more accepting of my child’s behavior” • “understand my child’s behavior”
Goodness of Fit – a Family System view • Good fit leads to healthy development • Poor fit puts children at risk for developing behavior problems
Family Systems Theory • The “ family” is viewed as a system • A change in a family member affects the entire family system • Temperament education lends itself to family education. • Parents, siblings – everyone has a temperament style.
assumes that individuals behavior is intricately inter-connected to the other members and forces within the family A systems approach to human development considers the way relationships within the family and between the family and social environment influence individual development and family functioning. Family Systems Theory
Thriving with Your Spirited Child has parent and child education components
Application: Concerns • Reliability of temperament measures (potential subjective bias in parent reports) • Validity of temperament measures • Potential “self-fulfilling” prophesy effects of labeling as difficult
Arguments supporting application • First, parents look for child-rearing guidance • Second, difficult temperament is associated with development of behavior problems, especially when parenting behaviors & attitudes are also considered (Morris, Cameron) • Third, difficult child temperament has negative effect on parenting behaviors & attitudes, p-c interactions and families
Research supporting practical application • Difficult child temperament associated with increased stress, risk of depression & lower self-efficacy (Sirignano & Lachman, Cutrona & Troutman) • Mothers of difficult infants were less involved & less responsive than mothers of easy infants (van den Boom, Susman-Stillman) • Temperament can facilitate or impede the developing attachment relationship.
Research supporting practical application • Mothers of difficult toddlers/preschoolers were less positive & affectionate, less supportive or involved, more punitive & less attached • Parent-child interactions (with a difficult child) were more negative & deteriorated in quality over time (Pettit & Bates) • Having a difficult child is associated with poor family functioning & increased levels of family disruption (Sheeber & Johnson)
Current temperament-based guidance programs • Help parents increase “goodness of fit” and prevent behavior problems • Based on theory of temperament • Based on Family System theory
Intervention research • Van den Boom evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention designed to improve goodness of fit between mothers and their irritable infants. • Random assignment to intervention or control • Intervention consisted of individual skill training sessions – three 2-hour sessions held monthly between 6 and 9 months
Intervention research Intervention group mothers (at 9 months) were: • More responsive & visually attentive • More appropriately controlling of their infant’s behavior Their infants, in turn, were: • More sociable • More able to soothe themselves • Less emotionally negative • More engaged in exploratory behavior • More likely to be securely attached at 12 months
Thriving with your Spirited Child The powerpoint to accompany the curriculumn
Thriving with Your Spirited Child
Thriving with Your Spirited Child
Presented by: Donna Doll-Yogerst and Faden Fulleylove-Krause UWEX Family Living Agents Oconto and Calumet Counties
Ground Rules • Start on time, stay on time, and close on time. • Everyone has a chance to talk. Share the opportunity. • No one HAS to talk. It is OK to pass at any time.
Ground Rules, cont. • All caregivers must decide what fits or would work for them. There is no one right way. • Advice is given only when asked for. • All that is shared is confidential – It stays here.
Ground Rules……the end • This program shares what science and research tells us works for most kids. • But, as the parent, you know your child better than any expert. • Select and try the ideas you think might work best.
Basis for Program You are the expert on YOUR child. An Agriculture expert can share the amount of fertilizer recommended for an entire field of corn. It is much more challenging to determine how much is needed for a single stalk of corn. Your ‘more’ child is that stalk of corn and you ARE the expert.
Introductory Activity State Your Name. Age of the “more” child who brought you here. Hello. My name is Mary
Earth Quake Activity Does it ever feel like this at your house with your ‘more’ child?
Definition of “spirited child” • Normal children who are MORE intense, persistent, sensitive, perceptive and uncomfortable with change than other children. • Mary Sheedy Kurcinka, Raising Your Spirited Child, page 7.
Label Activity Write one word that describes your ‘more’ child on their ‘earth quake’ days.
Label Activity cont. • How easy is it for a child to develop a positive sense of self when these words are used to describe him? • How do you feel as a parent/caregiver of this child?
Label Activity cont. • Unfortunately, words like these can become self-fulfilling prophecies, filling our minds and draining our energy. Fortunately, each of these words has a potential strength as we will soon explore.
Understanding Temperament • Kids are born with a biological make up that is the basis for their temperament. • Temperament is the child’s most natural way to react to people in the environment.
Understanding Temperament • Each child’s style is unique. • It is a behavioral style. • Life experiences effect temperament, but the child’s basic temperament or style stays the same.
Understanding Temperament • Temperament is one of many factors that make up a person’s personality. • Other factors that help us understand each child include: • Gender • Age • Birth order • Learning modality, etc.
Things you cannot change • Qualities we have to accept because they cannot be fundamentally changed: • Male or Female Skin Color • Facial Features Hair Color • Intelligence Height • Temperament Maturation Rate • Talent Incurable or chronic disease • The way children Body Type • think atdifferent What the child enjoys • ages Source: Kansas State University, Charles Smith, Ph.D.