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Bullying in America’s Schools & Effects at AAHS

Bullying in America’s Schools & Effects at AAHS

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Bullying in America’s Schools & Effects at AAHS

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  1. Bullying in America’s Schools & Effects at AAHS By: Kirk J. Dodson

  2. America’s Schools: Then • Forty years ago, public school teachers reported that the most serious behavioral problems that they dealt with on a daily basis were tardiness, talkative students and gum chewing. Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, The Bullied, The Bystander: From Pre School to High School – How Parents and Teachers Can Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: Collins Living.

  3. America’s Schools: Now • Today, teachers identify their classroom problems as drugs, gangs, weapons, theft, assault, rape, murder and bullying. • Bullying stands out as the common form of victimization and is often the springboard toward other types of violence. Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, The Bullied, The Bystander: From Pre School to High School – How Parents and Teachers Can Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: Collins Living.

  4. America’s Schools: Now • Statistics show that in over two – thirds of school shootings, the student attackers experienced some form of bullying prior to the incident. Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, The Bullied, The Bystander: From Pre School to High School – How Parents and Teachers Can Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: Collins Living.

  5. Effects of Bullying • Children who are bullied in school have little energy left for learning as most of their thoughts are filled with figuring out ways to avoid the bully in their life. • Many fear attending school, while others feign illness or make themselves sick in order to avoid school altogether. Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, The Bullied, The Bystander: From Pre School to High School – How Parents and Teachers Can Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: Collins Living.

  6. Effects of Bullying • Low self – esteem • Depression • Impaired social relationships • Decrease in academic performance • Increased absenteeism • Drop out Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  7. Three Categories: All Equally Effected • The Bullies • The Victims • The Bystanders Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  8. The Bullies: Who Are They? • Bullies cannot always be identified by what they look like, yet certainly through their actions. • Inborn temperament may be a factor, as is the environment that surrounds the bully. • A child’s home and school life, as well as community culture, all aid in creating or discouraging bullying tendencies. Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, The Bullied, The Bystander: From Pre School to High School – How Parents and Teachers Can Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: Collins Living.

  9. The Bullies: At Home • Numerous factors characterize the family lives of children who become school bullies. • The home is often emotionally charged; heavy with anger or cold and disconnected. Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  10. The Bullies: At Home • Typically, four factors relate to childhood aggression: • Maternal negativity • Neglect and rejection by the caretaker • Harsh child – rearing practices • Aggression which is treated as permissible Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  11. The Bullies: At Home • Some parents do not even realize when they promote bullying when they encourage their child to stand up for themselves or follow the “kids will be kids” way of thinking. Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  12. The Bullies: Common Traits • Bullies enjoy dominating others in order to get what they want. They are only concerned with their own wants and pleasures. • Bullies tend to hurt other children when adults are not present. They view siblings and peers as weaker “prey.” • Bullies use blame and false allegations in order to project their own inadequacies onto their targets. Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, The Bullied, The Bystander: From Pre School to High School – How Parents and Teachers Can Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: Collins Living.

  13. The Bullies: Common Traits • Bullies refuse to accept any responsibility for their own actions as they are unable to see a situation from another’s point of view. • Many bullies do not consider the consequences of their actions. • A bully is motivated by one thing: demeaning another child. Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, The Bullied, The Bystander: From Pre School to High School – How Parents and Teachers Can Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: Collins Living. Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  14. The Bullies: Gender Roles • Male bullies most often select their victims based on physical weakness, short tempers or clothing. • The targets of female bullies are often emotional or based on looks, weight and grades. Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  15. The Bullies: Go Modern • Modern bullies have discovered yet another new way to torment their victims with the advent of the Internet and cell phone technology. • Harm caused by cyberbullying may be even greater than that caused by other types as on – line communications can be extremely vicious and there is no escape as the victimization is able to occur twenty four hours a day, seven days a week. Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, The Bullied, The Bystander: From Pre School to High School – How Parents and Teachers Can Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: Collins Living.

  16. The Bullies: Go Modern • Cyberbullies often remain anonymous and solicit involvement of others. • Materials is often irretrievable and is capable of being distributed worldwide. Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, The Bullied, The Bystander: From Pre School to High School – How Parents and Teachers Can Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: Collins Living.

  17. The Bullies: Hurting Themselves? • Effects of bullying are not limited to the victims alone. • As adults, bullies typically • Are void of empathy • Develop unhealthy relationships • Develop unacceptable social skills • Grow up with a poor sense of self Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  18. The Bullies: Hurting Themselves? • Bullying can lead to dropping out of school, participation in delinquent acts and drunk driving during the teen years. • This negative behavior escalates even further into adulthood, as many bullies grow up to treat their own spouses and children with aggression, move on to criminal activities and eventually end up in jail. Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, The Bullied, The Bystander: From Pre School to High School – How Parents and Teachers Can Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: Collins Living. Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  19. The Victims: Who are they? • Victims of bullies are mostly the kids who find themselves at the bottom rungs of the social ladder. • Bullies target those whom they can unload anger, aggression and manipulation that is pent up inside of them. • Children who exhibit behaviors that annoy or amuse their peers are also easy targets for bullies. Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  20. The Victims: Passive • Most victims are described as passive. • Passive victims tend to see themselves as failures, less attractive and stupid. • They become an easy mark for those who choose to prey upon them. • Once the bullying begins, passive victims become so miserable that their feelings become somewhat of a self – fulfilling prophecy. Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  21. The Victims: Provocative • Provocative victims are more assertive, active and at times, to the chagrin of the bully, somewhat more confident than their passive counterparts. Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  22. The Victims: Adult Vigilance • Parents particularly, and adults in general, need to be vigilant and tuned in to the depth and instances of any discernible behavioral changes . • Parents should not simply ignore or dismiss any changes they may notice in their children’s behavior as simply a phase they are going through. Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, The Bullied, The Bystander: From Pre School to High School – How Parents and Teachers Can Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: Collins Living.

  23. The Victims: Warning Signs • A child who is being bullied may keep this fact to himself and is likely to not to share this information with an adult. • A child might tend to keep their plight to themselves; mostly because they fear retaliation or they are not convinced that those in authority at school are interested in putting a stop to the bullying. Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  24. The Victims: Warning Signs • Parents should be sensitive to clues as to what’s going on in their child’s life. • Kids speak in ways other than words: tone of voice, body language, facial expression and perhaps most importantly, with their eyes, after all, they are, the windows to our soul. Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, The Bullied, The Bystander: From Pre School to High School – How Parents and Teachers Can Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: Collins Living.

  25. The Victims: Warning Signs • If a child is spending a lot of time alone it could signal that something is amiss and bullying could be the reason. • If a child walks to school and takes a circuitous route rather than a logical one, they could be attempting to avoid a bully. • A sudden lost interest in school and an unexplained downward spiral in grades can be a red flag. • Loss of appetite, trouble sleeping, frequent complaints of physical ailments such as headaches and stomachaches are other symptoms and signs that bullied victims exhibit. Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, The Bullied, The Bystander: From Pre School to High School – How Parents and Teachers Can Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: Collins Living.

  26. The Victims: The Importance of Talk • The best way for a parent to find out what is going on in their child’s world is to talk with him or her. • Parents need to ask questions of their children, not in an intrusive inquisition-like manner, but rather in a way that lets the child know they are concerned and want to help them deal with any issues they may be facing at the time. • Direct and open-ended questions are best for getting a child to open up and talk about what, if anything, is troubling them.

  27. The Victims: Effects • Bullied children are often absent from school and miss out on valuable instruction time as well as any positive social experiences the school may offer. • The constant stress of being bullied serves to lower self esteem, leads to melancholy and depression, and in extreme cases, suicide. Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  28. The Bystanders: A Harmed Witness • In schools, when a bullying situation occurs, administrators and teachers inevitably deal with the situation by punishing the bully, offering aid, comfort and help to the victim all the while ignoring the bystanders. • It is important to understand that witnesses to bullying activity, so-called bystanders, oftentimes suffer with and experience similar psychological reactions to those of the victim. Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  29. The Bystanders: Paralyzing Fear • Bystanders suffer from a paralyzing fear of retribution by the bully, should they interfere or intervene in any way. • They don’t want to become the next target for the bully nor do they wish to be seen as a ‘nark’ or tattletale. Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, The Bullied, The Bystander: From Pre School to High School – How Parents and Teachers Can Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: Collins Living.

  30. The Bystanders: Becoming an Enabler • By not taking action the bystander becomes yet another enabler of the bully’s behavior. • The bully is no longer acting alone; by their silence the bystander too, has become a bully and together they further demean the victim. Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, The Bullied, The Bystander: From Pre School to High School – How Parents and Teachers Can Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: Collins Living.

  31. The Bystanders: Inaction • Kids who are bystanders do not intervene in bullying incidents for a number of reasons including: • Fear of physical injury • Fear of exacerbating an already volatile situation • They simply have no idea what to do Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, The Bullied, The Bystander: From Pre School to High School – How Parents and Teachers Can Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: Collins Living.

  32. The Bystanders: Responsibility • Bystanders must recognize that they have a responsibility to help create a safe, respectful, caring, and bully-free environment and this cannot happen if they stand idly by and allow bullying behavior to flourish unchecked. • It is not that bystanders do not see what is happening, they do; it is just that they do not understand how to deal with their own emotional reactions to it. Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, The Bullied, The Bystander: From Pre School to High School – How Parents and Teachers Can Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: Collins Living. Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  33. The Bystanders: School Personnel • Students are not the only bystanders. • There is a perception that teachers and administrators fall into this category as well. • Bullying victims feel that school administrators generally respond poorly to bullying problems. Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  34. The Bystanders: School Personnel • It is important, and indeed necessary, that school administration, teachers and staff develop a climate of tolerance as part of the district culture. • Since bullying behavior often extends traditional boundaries and is rooted in and focused on racial, ethnic, religious and difference in sexual preference, a climate of tolerance would be most helpful in avoiding some of the bullying triggers. Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  35. The Bystanders: School Personnel • Clearly communicating the policies and expectations of a school district and building is crucial. • Not only do they foster an environment where discipline is paramount but most importantly, it enhances a student’s understanding of what is right and what is wrong. Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  36. Prevention • Due to the prevalence of bullying and the increasing intrusiveness and violent nature of its acts, it is more necessary now more than ever before that schools adopt, implement and embrace bullying prevention programs as part of their culture. Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  37. Prevention • A successful prevention program will have relationship building as its’ cornerstone. • Teachers, administrators and staff must be prepared to address individual student needs and the best way to do so is through the building of relationships. • Such relationships must not only be built in the classroom but throughout the entire building. • One way to decrease the negative effect of bullying is to develop a program in which teachers, principals, counselors and staff are available for all bullying victims, the bully, the bullied and the bystander. Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  38. Prevention • Bullying is best prevented in an environment where students feel that they are cared about, secure, and able to form relationships. • These are the characteristics that so-called ‘safe schools’ have in common. • Safe schools are led by principal’s that foster these characteristics among three key groups: students, teachers and parents. Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  39. Prevention • By involving as many constituencies as possible in an anti-bullying program, the chances that it will succeed increase dramatically. • When the entire community takes ownership, stands up and says no to tyrannical behavior of bullies, it can break the cycle of violence in our schools. Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, The Bullied, The Bystander: From Pre School to High School – How Parents and Teachers Can Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: Collins Living.

  40. Prevention • School district’s that deny they have bullying issues are either naive or untruthful; and because they tend to stand idly by and let these willful acts of aggression occur, they are part of the problem. • Students are not in a position to put a stop to the bullying they experience and witness. • As with most issues involving students, committed adults are needed at home, in school and in the community to help break the cycle of violence. Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, The Bullied, The Bystander: From Pre School to High School – How Parents and Teachers Can Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: Collins Living.

  41. Prevention • Adults must always be aware that like it or not, they serve as role models for any and all children with whom they come in contact; and being a good role model is crucial in helping children learn positive interpersonal skills which will aid in the defeat of bullying activity. Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2003). Bullying: The Bullies, The Victims, The Bystanders. Lanham: Scarecrow Education.

  42. Student & Teacher Surveys at AAHS • In order to assess the subject of bullying at the Altoona Area High School, two surveys were conducted. • The first survey was distributed to six classes of varying academic and grade levels. • The second survey was distributed to professional personnel.

  43. Student Survey ResultsWhat grade are you in school?

  44. Student Survey ResultsWhat is your gender?

  45. Student Survey ResultsI would describe myself as…

  46. Student Survey ResultsHave you ever been bullied at this school?

  47. Student Survey ResultsIf so, briefly describe the experience. • Student responses ranged from the following: • Name calling • The bully made fun of my weight so I slammed him into a locker • Mostly emotional abuse. • A teacher likes to make fun of me because I have long hair. • Everyday for a month, a bully stole my lunch money. • I was ostracized from my English study group or “cluster.” • I was made fun of because of the way I dress. • I’ve had soda bottles/cans thrown at me been called names and mocked for my culture. • There was a girl who didn’t like me because I dated her brother. • I was being made fun of for different reasons. • Kids threw gum in my hair and shot rubber bands at me.

  48. Student Survey ResultsIf so, briefly describe the experience. • Student responses ranged from the following: • Just verbal bullying – kids saying rude things. • People made fun of my appearance. • Sexual harassment; Someone made a sexual move in the hall. • I’ve been put down, made fun of, etc. • A year ago I was made fun of/verbally harassed, I stopped it. • I got smacked in the back of the head. • A girl I thought was my friend talked about me behind my back. • Mean looks and hurtful things were said. • My cell number was given out to a girl in which at the time was my boyfriend’s ex-girl friend and she left a threatening voicemail. • The girl who bullied me brought a bar of soap and threw it at me and told me to take a Shower. I retaliated and whipped it at her.

  49. Student Survey ResultsExplain how being bullied makes you feel. • Student responses ranged from the following: • It makes me feel sad; Bad; Crappy.; Terrible; Unloved. • Upset; Angry. • Makes me feel lower than any other person. • Never sad, but angry. • Angry and mad. Especially with a teacher, you can’t really stand up for yourself • I dropped 20 pounds due to lack of food consumption • In general, it just annoys me, but if anyone tells another person to kill himself, then the offender will be destroyed to the best of my ability. • I don’t agree with it at all. People have committed suicide over it. • Sometimes it’s funny to watch but can be hurtful to others and can sometimes get out of control and then not be funny.

  50. Student Survey ResultsExplain how being bullied makes you feel. • Student responses ranged from the following: • You see it happen, but the school never does anything so that they can pretend the school never has a bullying incident. • It made me self-conscious and mad because I am my own person with a boyfriend. • Insecure about yourself. • Makes you feel like dirt. • Lowers self-esteem and makes you feel bad about yourself. • Bullying makes me upset because there is no need to make someone feel bad about themselves. • It has made me rather sad. It affected my school work. • I don’t like to see it, it’s not fair and it is uncomfortable to see or hear about. • It made me really upset and sad. It felt like no one liked me.