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COMMUNICATION & PRESENTATION SKILLS ORAL PRESENTATION PowerPoint Presentation
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COMMUNICATION & PRESENTATION SKILLS ORAL PRESENTATION

COMMUNICATION & PRESENTATION SKILLS ORAL PRESENTATION

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COMMUNICATION & PRESENTATION SKILLS ORAL PRESENTATION

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  1. COMMUNICATION & PRESENTATION SKILLSORAL PRESENTATION MILIND MALSHE Professor Department of Humanities & Social Sciences IIT-BOMBAY

  2. OUTLINE • WHAT IS COMMUNICATION? • THE FOUR SKILLS • MAIN POINTS TO REMEMBER ABOUT ORAL PRESENTATION • DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS

  3. I.WHAT IS COMMUNICATION? Any communication involves SIX basic elements: CONTEXT CODE [ENCODING] [DECODING] SENDER —————— RECEIVER CONTACT MESSAGE

  4. WHAT IS COMMUNICATION?(CONTINUED) • The nature of communication changes, depending upon which element we want to emphasize. Thus, we have SIX corresponding types of communication.

  5. CONTEXT: REFERENTIAL / DESCRIPTIVE CODE: METALINGUAL SENDER: ————— RECEIVER: EXPRESSIVE / CONATIVE/ EMOTIVE PERSUASIVE CONTACT : PHATIC / R1TUAUSTIC MESSAGE: POETIC / AESTHETIC WHAT IS COMMUNICATION?(CONTINUED)

  6. WHAT IS COMMUNICATION?(CONTINUED) • FEEDBACK: • It is important to remember that this is NOT a one-way process; the RECEIVER is also the ENCODER AND SENDER of FEEDBACK (e.g. clapping, yawning, etc.) which the SENDER must RECEIVE AND DECODE.

  7. WHAT IS COMMUNICATION?(CONTINUED) • NOISE: • This includes all those elements that interfere with or hamper the process of communication: e.g., • (i) in oral communication, faulty pronunciation or a very high speed of utterance; • (ii) in written communication, long documents without paragraph breaks;

  8. WHAT IS COMMUNICATION?(CONTINUED) • (iii) verbal overload: compare • 1a. Students who get involved at school and college learn best. • 1b. The amount of student learning and personal development associated with any educational programme is directly proportional to the quality and quantity of student involvement in that programme. • 2a. Good schools and colleges try to get students involved. • 2b. The effectiveness of any educational policy or practice is directly related to the capacity of the policy or practice to improve student involvement in learning.

  9. II. THE FOUR SKILLS: • SENDING: SPEAKING WRITING • RECEIVING: LISTENING READING Each skill may need a separate approach, or they may be integrated into a single approach.

  10. MAIN POINTS TO REMEMBER ABOUT ORAL PRESENTATION • (i) effective use of visual aids • (ii) adequate eye contact : size of the audience • (iii) clarity in pronunciation • (iv) maintaining a proper speed of presentation • (v) posture and body movements suggesting confidence • (vi) seeking and making proper use of visual feedback • (vii) noting down important points arising out of discussion

  11. V. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS • 1. Speech & Writing/Printing: a comparison • Speech : pitch, volume, tone, speed, pauses, body movements, facial expressions • Writing/Printing: punctuation, capitalization, spacing, margins, fonts

  12. V. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued) • 2. Pronunciation of Words: (a) vowel and consonant sounds • (comparison of sounds with letters a-z); The letter “a” in : fat, father, fate, about Or the letters “th” in “thin” & “then”. Also notice that (b) word-stress

  13. V. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued) • 3. Use of the phonetic script and the (Pronouncing) Dictionary

  14. V. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued) 4. Pronunciation of Sentences: intonation and rhythm

  15. Vowels of English • (Pure Vowels/Monophthongs)initially medially finally • 1. /i:/ east sheet key • 2. /I/ it hit duty • 3. /e / end send • 4. /æ/ and sand • 5. /a:/ art heart car • 6. /ɒ/ ox fox

  16. Vowels of English (continued) initially medially finally 7. /ɔ:/ all ball saw 8. /U/ put 9. /u:/ ooze choose chew 10.// up cup 11./з:/ earn learn stir 12./ə/ ago police maker

  17. Vowels of English (continued)Diphthongs • 13. /eɪ/ eight straight stay • 14. /əʊ/ oak jokeslow • 15. /aɪ/ ice mice my • 16./aʊ/ out shout how • 17. /ɔɪ/ oil boil boy • 18. /ɪə/ ears beard peer • 19. /eə/ airs paired hare • 20. /uə/ cured tour

  18. Consonants of English • initially medially finally • 1. /p/ pin spin keep • 2. /b/ bin tubs club • 3. /t/ tell stick light • 4. /d/ day heads laid • 5. /k/ keep skill stick • 6. /g/ getjugsbag

  19. Consonants of English(continued) • initially medially finally • 7. /ʧ/ chin reached teach • 8. / ʤ/ joke hinged large • 9. /m/ met smoke team • 10. /n/ net snake tin • 11. /ŋ/ rings sing • 12. /l/ lot fling full

  20. Consonants of English(continued) • initially medially finally • 13 /f/ fan soft if • 14. /v/ van leaves thief • 15. /ɵ/ thin months bath • 16./ð/ then clothes bathe

  21. Consonants of English(continued) • initially medially finally • 17. /s/ sip list less • 18. /z/ zip loser buzz • 19. /ʃ/ ship rushed hush • 20. /ʒ/ measure rouge

  22. Consonants of English(continued) • initially medially finally • 21. /h/ hot behave • 22. /r/ rot try • 23. /w/ watt sweat • 24. /j/ yatch tune

  23. Two-syllable words Stress on first syllable ‘bargain ‘govern ‘secret ‘mischief ‘message ‘cabbage ‘surface ‘furnace ‘husband ‘butcher ‘proverb ‘thorough ‘oven ‘onion ‘compass Word-stress

  24. Stress on second syllable ad’mit for’bid suc’ced sup’press po’lice pay’ee dis’miss ag’ree se’lect re’quest pre’fer re’fer oc’cur ar’rest com’mence per’haps Word-stress (continued)

  25. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued) • 3. Use of the phonetic script and the (Pronouncing) Dictionary: International Phonetic Alphabet: free downloading is possible • Dictionaries on CD : listening to the pronunciation and it variety (e.g. British & American) now possible

  26. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued) 4. Pronunciation of Sentences: intonation and rhythm INTONATION: rising / (yes /) falling \ (yes \) combination \/ (yes \/) RHYTHM: de dum de dum x ’ x ’

  27. Vowel sounds of English • (Pure Vowels/Monophthongs)initially medially finally • 1. /i:/ east sheet key • 2. /I/ it hit duty • 3. /e / end send • 4. /æ/ and sand • 5. /a:/ art heart car • 6. /ɒ/ ox fox

  28. Vowel sounds of English (continued) initially medially finally 7. /ɔ:/ all ball saw 8. /U/ put 9. /u:/ ooze choose chew 10.// up cup 11./з:/ earn learn stir 12. /ə/ ago police maker

  29. Vowel sounds of English (continued)Diphthongs • 13. /eɪ/ eight straight stay • 14. /əʊ/ oak jokeslow • 15. /aɪ/ ice mice my • 16./aʊ/ out shout how • 17. /ɔɪ/ oil boil boy • 18. /ɪə/ ears beard peer • 19. /eə/ airs paired hare • 20. /uə/ cured tour

  30. Consonant sounds of English • initially medially finally • 1. /p/ pin spin keep • 2. /b/ bin tubs club • 3. /t/ tell stick light • 4. /d/ day heads laid • 5. /k/ keep skill stick • 6. /g/ getjugsbag

  31. Consonant sounds of English(continued) • initially medially finally • 7. /ʧ/ chin reached teach • 8. / ʤ/ joke hinged large • 9. /m/ met smoke team • 10. /n/ net snake tin • 11. /ŋ/ rings sing • 12. /l/ lot fling full

  32. Consonant sounds of English(continued) • initially medially finally • 13 /f/ fan soft if • 14. /v/ van leaves thief • 15. /ɵ/ thin months bath • 16./ð/ then clothes bathe

  33. Consonant sounds of English(continued) • initially medially finally • 17. /s/ sip list less • 18. /z/ zip loser buzz • 19. /ʃ/ ship rushed hush • 20. /ʒ/ measure rouge

  34. Consonant sounds of English(continued) • initially medially finally • 21. /h/ hot behave • 22. /r/ rot try • 23. /w/ watt sweat • 24. /j/ yatch tune

  35. Two-syllable words Stress on first syllable ‘bargain ‘govern ‘secret ‘mischief ‘message ‘cabbage ‘surface ‘furnace ‘husband ‘butcher ‘proverb ‘thorough ‘oven ‘onion ‘compass Word-stress

  36. Stress on second syllable ad’mit for’bid suc’ced sup’press po’lice pay’ee dis’miss ag’ree se’lect re’quest pre’fer re’fer oc’cur ar’rest com’mence per’haps Word-stress (continued)Two-syllable words

  37. Stress on first syllable ’advertise ’educate ’illustrate ’furniture ’government ’literature ’recognize ’signature ’tentative Stress on second syllable ad’venture com’mercial de’cision ex’ternal in’ternal per’mission re’vision spec’tator um’brella Word-stress (continued)Three-syllable words

  38. Primary Stress on third syllable ,addres’see ,ciga’rette ,coin’cide ,devo’tee ,engi’neer ,guaran’tee ,recom’mend Word-stress (continued)Three-syllable words

  39. Primary Stress on first syllable ’applicable ’accurately ’comfortable ’honourable Primary Stress on second syllable ad’vertisement ap’preciate a’rithmetic e’xaggerate par’ticipate pho’tography Word-stress (continued)Four-syllable words

  40. Primary Stress on third syllable acci’dental appli’cation exhi’bition inde’pendent indi’vidual Primary Stress on fourth syllable dedica’tee exami’nee Word-stress (continued)Four-syllable words

  41. Primary Stress on first syllable ‘favouritism ‘cannibalism ‘secularism Primary Stress on second syllable ad’venturousness en’thusiasm con’servatism Primary Stress on third syllable elec’tricity irre’sponsible popu’larity Primary Stress on fourth syllable acade’mician civili’zation pactici’pation Word-stress (continued)words with more than four syllables

  42. Word-stress (continued):stress change according to part of speech • COMPARE: Noun/Adjective Verb • ’absent ab’sent • ’accent ac’cent • ’concert con’cert • ’conflict con’flict • ’export ex’port • ’produce pro’duce • ’subject sub’ject

  43. Attributes of good oral communication • 1.Sounds and sound combinations • 2. Stress • 3. Rhythm • 4. Intonation • 5. Speed: pausing • 6. Clarity of articulation • 7. Voice modulation: volume & pitch variation (avoiding “monotonous speech)

  44. PROPER USE OF WORDS • accede, v.to agree to, to give in • exceed, v.to be greater than expected • accept, v.to receive • except, v. to leave out • except,prep.but • access,n., adj. the opportunity to approach or reach • excess,n., adj.more than needed

  45. adapt, v. to change in order to make suitable • adept,adj. skillful • adopt,v. to accept without change • advice, n. an opinion given • advise,v. to give a judgment in order to influence action • affect,v. to change or influence • effect,v. to bring something about • effect,n. a result

  46. complement, v. to complete or make whole • complement, n. that which makes something complete • compliment, n. an expression of approval • compliment,v. to express approval or congratulations • comprise, v (more formal; preposition used only in passive) The class comprises mainly foreign students. /The class is comprised mainly of foreign students. • consist of, v+prep The class consists mainly of foreign students.

  47. Tools: Transition/Connection Link sentences with particular logical relationships with conjunctions or equivalent: Identity, Opposition, Addition, Cause and Effect, Concession, Exemplification

  48. Identity • indicates sameness: • that is, that is to say, in other words

  49. Opposition • indicates a contrast: • but, yet, however, nevertheless, still, though, although, whereas, in contrast, rather

  50. Addition • indicates continuation: • and, too, also, furthermore, moreover, in addition, besides, in the same way, again, another, similarly, similar, the same